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I had been aware that the crusaders brought back a lot of technical advances such as the forge, water wheel and windmill, from the Muslim world, and I was aware that the Muslim world had been profoundly impacted by the Mongol invasions, but most of the crusades occurred before the Mongol invasion of the Persia and Mesopotamia. There was also a huge ship borne trade from China to India and the Arab world, including Basra and Egypt that had been ongoing for centuries. Might it be that the knowledge preceded the invasion and came by trade? Organizational and administrative practices would be more likely to only arrive with the people who used them.  

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Fri May 10th, 2013 at 06:14:25 PM EST

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