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Interesting report on the history of British Petroleum, defeat of Ottoman Empire and the rise of Saudi Arabia with land compensation provided by the British.

Oil and Its Outcomes - Background To Help Understand The Middle East Crisis

After the 1890's, though little publicized, the search for secure energy in the form of petroleum would become of extreme importance to Her Majesty's Navy and government. A global war for control of oil was shaping up, one few were even aware of outside select policy circles Winston Churchill replaced Fisher as First Lord of the Admiralty but was a strong advocate of
Fisher's oil conversion. Churchill stated "We must become the owners or at any rate the controllers at the source of at least a proportion of the oil which we require" The conversion of the British Navy under Churchill meant a high risk strategy as England had abundant coal but no then-known oil. By the first decade of the 20th Century securing long-term foreign petroleum sources had become an essential factor for British geopolitics.  

As oil emerged as the fuel of industry, it also came to be regarded as the fuel of war. The ability to discover, exploit, and maintain this invaluable commodity in the interest of the nation became a paramount concern. By 1909, a British company, Anglo-Persian Oil Company held rights to oil exploration in a 60-year concession from the Persian Shah near the border to Mesopotamia. In 1912, the company negotiated an agreement with Winston Churchill for controlling interest by the British Government in return for secure oil for the Royal Navy. Following the outbreak of war, Britain's majority stake position in the Anglo-Persian Oil Company assumed central importance. Persian oil production grew more than 10-fold- with the company meeting one-fifth of the Royal Navy's oil needs. The fact that Britain was able to maintain control of the majority of its Anglo-Persian assets during the war contributed to fueling the Allied war effort against Germany and the Ottoman Empire

The Saudi family has controlled much of the Arabian Peninsula since the 1700s. In 1905, the Saudis controlled very little, having lost their territory in a series of wars. The peninsula was divided into lots of little kingdoms and emirates. The Ottoman Empire controlled most of them, with the British Empire controlling the southernmost third of the peninsula. After World War I, the Saudis expanded to all of the purple area, as the British had promised for helping to fight the Ottomans. By the early 1920s, the British effectively controlled most of the peninsula, through protectorates, and mandates. In 1923, ibn Saud invaded the Hejaz and ousted Hashemite King Hussein. Abdicating in 1924, Hussein left the Hejaz to be assimilated into the Saudi kingdom.

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Churchill using poisoned gas in Mesopotamia

Churchill was particularly keen on chemical weapons, suggesting they be used "against recalcitrant Arabs as an experiment". He dismissed objections as "unreasonable". "I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes _ [to] spread a lively terror _"

Global Warming - distance between America and Europe is steadily increasing.

by Oui on Tue Sep 25th, 2018 at 10:04:23 AM EST

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