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LQD - Long Term Covid: The Brain

by ATinNM Tue Jul 13th, 2021 at 03:10:19 PM EST

We are finally getting some information regarding the affects of Covid-19 on the brain.

The news is horrible.

How COVID-19 Affects the Brain

COVID-19 has resulted in more than 120 million cases and 2.6 million deaths to date. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are accompanied by short- and long-term neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPs) and long-term brain sequelae.

Some patients present with anosmia, cognitive and attention deficits (ie, brain fog), new-onset anxiety, depression, psychosis, seizures, and even suicidal behavior. These present before, during, and after respiratory symptoms and are unrelated to respiratory insufficiency, suggesting independent brain damage. Follow-ups conducted in Germany and the United Kingdom found post-COVID-19 NPs in 20% to 70% of patients, even in young adults, and lasting months after respiratory symptoms resolved, suggesting brain involvement persists.

Entering through angiotensin-converting enzyme receptors, SARS-CoV-2 can damage endothelial cells leading to inflammation, thrombi, and brain damage. Moreover, systemic inflammation leads to decreased monoamines and trophic factors and activation of microglia, resulting in increased glutamate and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and excitotoxicity. These insults induce new-onset or re-exacerbation of preexisting NPs.

[emphasis added]

Frontpaged - Frank Schnittger

  •  "Neural toxicity" has been strongly correlated with the later development of schizophrenia

  •  SARS-CoV-2 virus found in the brain stem is the horrible news.  The brain stem activity is the bedrock upon which brain activity stands.  Relatively insignificant in terms of number of neurons damage can and does cause significant dysfunction, e.g., life-long coma

  •  No country has the capability to deal with the coming millions of mild to severe to dysfunctional mentally ill

Possibly the worst feature of the current public health reports is the focus on "cases" and "deaths." There is no mention of the extended hospital stays and the long-term effects on any of the state systems I am aware of.
by asdf on Tue Jul 13th, 2021 at 04:59:48 PM EST
You won't find that information in state records. You'll have to go to the journals.  

Global Incidence of Neurological Manifestations Among Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19--A Report for the GCS-NeuroCOVID Consortium and the ENERGY Consortium

Findings  In this cohort study of 3744 patients in 2 large consortia, neurological manifestations were found in approximately 80% of patients hospitalized with COVID-19; the most common self-reported symptoms included headache (37%) and anosmia or ageusia (26%), whereas the most common neurological signs and/or syndromes were acute encephalopathy (49%), coma (17%), and stroke (6%). Presence of clinically captured neurologic signs and/or syndromes was associated with increased risk of in-hospital death.

Here's a somewhat more "user friendly" exposition.

Study: 80% of hospital COVID-19 patients have neurologic complications

I'm interested in the brain so that's my focus.

Here's a link that can point you to other and broader reports and studies.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre

by ATinNM on Wed Jul 14th, 2021 at 02:10:24 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Between cognitive effects of higher CO2 concentration and widespread brain damage it's going to be a dumb few decades. Future looking bright.
by generic on Wed Jul 14th, 2021 at 08:44:52 AM EST
Western beneficiaries of maintenance drug regimes that supress symptoms or modulate disease progression and affective behaviors that might disrupt HRQOL, QOL, or activities of daily living (ADL).
by Cat on Wed Jul 14th, 2021 at 02:36:31 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Oxford and AstraZeneca resume coronavirus vaccine trial | Seattle Times - Sept. 12, 2020 |
Updated September 14, 2020 at 1:39 pm

Although Oxford would not disclose information about the patient's illness due to participant confidentiality, an AstraZeneca spokesman said earlier this week that a woman had developed severe neurological symptoms that prompted the pause. Specifically, the woman is said to have developed symptoms consistent with transverse myelitis, a rare inflammation of the spinal cord.

In The Netherlands  four persons vaccinated with AstraZeneca corona vaccines developed  symptoms consistent with transverse myelitis, a rare inflammation of the spinal cord.

4 Cases Transverse Myelitis after AstraZeneca Jabs | NZG - 3 hrs ago |

More info ....

Transverse Myelitis | Mayo Clinic |

Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of both sides of one section of the spinal cord. This neurological disorder often damages the insulating material covering nerve cell fibers (myelin).

Transverse myelitis interrupts the messages that the spinal cord nerves send throughout the body. This can cause pain, muscle weakness, paralysis, sensory problems, or bladder and bowel dysfunction.

Transverse Myelitis Fact Sheet

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Wed Jul 14th, 2021 at 02:52:54 PM EST
In general, any medicine will cause adverse side effects in some patients.  

Widespread vaccination will also be associated with false side effects.  

We're talking about treating very, very large populations, which means that you're going to see the usual run of mortality and morbidity that you see across large samples. Specifically, if you take 10 million people and just wave your hand back and forth over their upper arms, in the next two months you would expect to see about 4,000 heart attacks. About 4,000 strokes. Over 9,000 new diagnoses of cancer. And about 14,000 of that ten million will die, out of usual all-causes mortality. No one would notice. That's how many people die and get sick anyway.

[emphasis original]

The complete failure of politicians, decision makers, and Public Health officials to apply palliative measures: masking, gloving, quarantine, lock down, etc., to contain the virus when it was possible to contain the virus means there are two mechanisms left:

  1.  Let the disease run amok, killing hundreds of millions

  2.  Widespread vaccination, knowing some thousands will inevitably die

In specific, AstraZeneca was rushed to market without proper safeguards and testing so Boris Johnson could use the release to score political points with the ignorant.  I do not know - and neither will anyone else now - the date, information, and knowledge valid clinical trials would have revealed.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Thu Jul 15th, 2021 at 02:36:08 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Wellness Resorts Eye Long Covid Treatments as New Moneymaker
Their addressable market is surprisingly large. While in-depth research on the prevalence of long Covid is still in its early stages, a recent study by the U.K.'s Office of National Statistics found that 13.7% of its 20,000 respondents, all of whom had tested positive for Covid-19, still felt symptoms after three months. If this percentage is an indicator of the numbers elsewhere, more than 23 million people could be experiencing long Covid worldwide.
Although long Covid is a novel phenomenon, the isolated symptoms are not. Treatments for brain fog and respiratory problems have been a mainstay in wellness brochures for decades; they run the gamut from Ayurvedic methodologies to science-backed technical approaches. This allowed wellness resorts to launch their Covid recovery programs relatively swiftly, without the need for new specialists or equipment. Lanserhof's Covid recovery program made its debut in May 2020--even before "long Covid" was added to the dictionary.
by Cat on Wed Jul 14th, 2021 at 10:44:32 PM EST
Fleecing the gullible and desperate is a mainstay of "Alternative Medicine" (sic.)  

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Thu Jul 15th, 2021 at 02:40:53 PM EST
[ Parent ]
And Glorious Orrin Hatch pushed through legislation that barred the FDA from regulating the "supplement" scams that are the basis of the Utah County economy.
by rifek on Sun Jul 18th, 2021 at 03:56:04 PM EST
[ Parent ]
COVID-19 Special: What are the consequences of not knowing?, A/V interview(EN)
A German study has found that more than 40% of [Germans] who contract COVID-19 are not aware of their infection. The rate is even higher among elderly people. Scientists are trying to understand how that can affect long-term health.
BEN FAJZULLIN: So Philipp is time to get self-tests [?!] out there to make sure everyone is not only working out whether they are infectious but whether they've had the COVID [sic] virus?
BEN FAJZULLIN: How many of these unknown cases could be long-term COVID?
by Cat on Thu Jul 15th, 2021 at 11:43:16 AM EST
Frequency of testing for a particular antibody

A patient in a clinic in Haren near Groningen had the disease and also a vaccination but there are no antibodies. More research as we proceed.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jul 15th, 2021 at 01:11:34 PM EST
[ Parent ]
That happens.  It's a combination of large numbers inevitably has outliers on the old Bell Curve and the fact Biology is hideously complicated, Complex, and - to many people's chagrin - Chaotic: dynamic, non-linear, subject to initial conditions.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Thu Jul 15th, 2021 at 02:45:55 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Half of UK Covid patients in hospital `developed health complication'
Half of the coronavirus patients admitted to hospital in the United Kingdom during the first wave developed at least one complication, new research has found.

The study included more than 70,000 adults in the United Kingdom admitted to hospital with severe Covid-19 disease.

Of these, half (36,367 of 73,197) developed one or more health complications during their stay.

Kidney injury was the most common complication (24.3 per cent), followed by lung complications (18.4 per cent) and heart complications (12.3 per cent).

Those with complications were nearly twice as likely to die and seven times more likely to need intensive care when compared to people without complications, the study found.

Complications in patients admitted to hospital were high, even in young, previously healthy individuals.

Researchers say these complications are likely to have important short and long-term impacts for patients, healthcare utilisation, healthcare system preparedness and society amid the ongoing pandemic.

They also note these complications are different to long Covid symptoms in patients who were not admitted to hospital with the disease.

According to the study, 27 per cent of 19- to 29-year-olds and 37 per cent of 30- to 39-year-olds experienced a complication.

Acute complications were associated with reduced ability self-care discharge -- with 13 per cent of 19- to 29-year-olds and 17 per cent of 30- to 39-year-olds unable to look after themselves once discharged from hospital.

Index of Frank's Diaries
by Frank Schnittger (mail Frankschnittger at hot male dotty communists) on Fri Jul 16th, 2021 at 10:35:01 AM EST
Characterisation of in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: a prospective, multicentre cohort study

Nothing much to add directly.

I note the "Delta" variant (B.1.617.2) is being reported as more virulent than the strains running around when the study was conducted between January and August of 2020.  While it is certainly possible "Delta" will not have the same long term effects given in the report I'm afraid it is much more likely the long term effects will be the same ... or worse.

Won't know until we get there.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre

by ATinNM on Fri Jul 16th, 2021 at 06:03:34 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jul 16th, 2021 at 05:35:02 PM EST
Very good news if it can be developed into a therapy.  

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Fri Jul 16th, 2021 at 05:48:58 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Geroscience has entered the room
Unfortunately, for now it appears Congress is headed toward a watered down ARPA-H [$6.5B Advanced Research Projects Agency for Health], funded at less than half the requested amount. It also appears the new agency will largely continue the outdated "disease first" [BWAH!] culture of most National Institutes of Health-funded research. To me this suggests, at best, incremental advances.
If our bodies were commercial aircraft, this would be akin to skipping maintenance and waiting until the engine is on fire at 35,000 feet before you take action.  

Geroscience seeks to maintain optimum health -- and prevent disease -- by attenuating the molecular causes of biological aging directly. [...] The economic case for a geroscience moonshot is compelling. ... In fact, one recent study estimated the cost savings from a conservative geroscience intervention that increases healthy life expectancy by only one year would reach about $38 trillion annually.  Given the proposed ARPA-H price tag of $6.5 billion, that equates to a 5846-fold return on investment.[!]

< wipes tears >
Equally compelling is the social impact of targeting biological aging versus treating individual diseases. ...Wouldn't it be better for everyone to maximize healthspan and spend those extra years free from disease biological aging? This is the promise of a geroscience moonshot.
NEXT WEEK: I didn't know I was aging.
by Cat on Fri Jul 16th, 2021 at 06:32:35 PM EST
Aging is the gradual accumulation of cell damage leading to molecular dysfunction.  The 'usual' culprit is DNA damage and somatic mosaicism -- postzygotic mutation. And that's the extent of my scientific knowledge.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Sat Jul 17th, 2021 at 02:36:45 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Researchers are concerned about the possibility that COVID-19 might lead to dementia or Alzheimers, trade association story developing ...
Although long-haul COVID-19 is often described as primarily affecting younger people, the new studies suggest that many over 60 also have brain ["]issues["] long after their initial infections.
Petersen, who wasn't involved in the new studies, said it's still early to understand what's going on in the brains of people with long-haul symptoms, such as ["]brain fog["] and memory loss, but he thinks [!] they're likely due either to lingering inflammation or the ["]after-effects["] of inflammation that occurred during infection.
so science-y
FDA, facing intense criticism, narrows use of controversial Alzheimer's drug to patients with early-stage disease
archived medication fog
by Cat on Thu Jul 29th, 2021 at 10:04:42 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Coronavirus doctor's diary: Unvaccinated patients with many regrets - BBC
As in many other hospitals, the number of patients being treated for Covid-19 in Bradford Royal Infirmary is sharply rising. About half of them had chosen not to be vaccinated, says Dr John Wright - which many now deeply regret.

"I was offered the vaccine, but I was arrogant," says Faisal Bashir, a super-fit 54-year-old.

"I was going to the gym, cycling, walking and running. Given that I was strong and healthy I didn't think I needed it. That also meant that if it turned out not to be safe I wouldn't have taken any risks.

"But the truth was that I couldn't avoid the virus. It still got me. I don't know how or where."

Faisal, who was discharged on Wednesday after a week in hospital receiving oxygen, is keen to warn others not to make his mistake.

"What I've experienced in hospital - the care and expertise - humbles me," he says.

"People are filling the hospitals by taking chances and it's wrong. I feel terrible. I feel so bad about it and I hope by speaking out it helps others avoid this."

by Bernard (bernard) on Sat Jul 17th, 2021 at 08:24:48 PM EST
many are failing.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Sun Jul 18th, 2021 at 03:15:26 PM EST
[ Parent ]
And the news just gets worse.

SARS-CoV-2 infects brain astrocytes of COVID-19 patients and impairs neuronal viability

One increasingly documented tendency of COVID-19 patients is to exhibit neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms. Here we found that anxiety and cognitive impairment are manifested by 28-56% of COVID-19 convalescent individuals with mild respiratory symptoms and are associated with altered cerebral cortical thickness. Using an independent cohort, we found histopathological signs of brain damage in 25% of individuals who died of COVID-19. All of the affected brain tissue studied exhibited foci of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, particularly astrocytes. We also found that neural stem cell-derived human astrocytes in vitro are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection through a mechanism that involves spike-NRP1 interaction. SARS-CoV-2-infected astrocytes manifested changes in energy metabolism and in key proteins and metabolites used to fuel neurons, as well as in the biogenesis of neurotransmitters. Moreover, infection elicits a secretory phenotype that reduces neuronal viability. Our data support the model in which SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain, infects astrocytes and consequently leads to neuronal death or dysfunction. These deregulated processes are also likely to contribute to the structural and functional alterations seen in the brains of COVID-19 patients.

[emphasis added]

Astrocytes process, regulate, and modify brain signaling just like neurons.  They are the "other half" of the tripartite synapse.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre

by ATinNM on Mon Jul 19th, 2021 at 03:04:46 PM EST
We performed a minimally invasive autopsy via endonasal trans-ethmoidal access to obtain brain samples from 26 individuals who died of COVID-19.
To confirm SARS-CoV-2 infects human astrocytes, we analyzed healthy [?] human brain slices that were exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and double-stranded RNA were detected in human brain slices 48 hours post infection (Figure 3A). The SARS-CoV-2 genome was also detected by RT-PCR in brain slices infected at 24 and 48 hours post infection (Figure 3B). SARS-CoV-2 infection in astrocytes was confirmed by immunostaining the SARSCoV-2 spike protein and GFAP (Figure 3C).
by Cat on Mon Jul 19th, 2021 at 04:56:16 PM EST
[ Parent ]
They took brain slices from dead people whose cause of death was known and then exposed the slices to SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Tue Jul 20th, 2021 at 02:28:06 PM EST
[ Parent ]
SARS-CoV-2 "impairs neuronal viability".
Brain ["]alterations["] in COVID-19 patients are hypothesized to be a consequence of either
inflammatory or hemodynamic changes secondary to peripheral infection or SARS-CoV-2 invading the CNS [central nervous system] and compromising cell viability and [?1] brain function. Although exacerbated inflammation and cardiovascular ["]dysfunction["] have been well-characterized in COVID-19 patients who progress to the severe stages of the disease (Li et al., 2020), the degree of infection [sic] of the CNS [sic] by SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive.
...because systemic hypoxia isn't well understood? Or  these 87 authors assumed that astrocytes might be isolated from and impervious to "23 different physiological functions" regulated by, guess what? hemaglobin, the medium by which SARS-CoV-2 "droplets" also circulate from organ to organ?
3T MRI on 81 [living] subjects diagnosed with COVID-19 who had mild respiratory symptoms and did not require hospitalization or oxygen support. The analysis was performed within an average (SD) interval of 57 (26) days after SARS-CoV-2 detection by RT-qPCR and the subjects were compared to 145 healthy volunteers collected pre-covid period (Tables S1 and S2)
we sought to evaluate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the five brain samples that presented histopathological ["]alterations["]. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 genetic material and spike protein were detected in all five samples (Figures 2B and 2C).
These examinations of brain tissue, purporting to measure neuronal activity or cognitive defect, aren't spatially or temporally comparable. The conclusion, "these data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 can preferentially [?!] infect astrocytes - and replicate within them - in human brain slices, which is in line with findings from human postmortem brains," is clinically insignificant not because in vitro observations align "with findings from human postmortem brains," but because affirm known degenerative diseases attributed to "active inflammatory state of the astrocytes, which is usually described as up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)".

Too bad neurons do not regenerate, and SARS-CoV-2 is so slutty.

by Cat on Tue Jul 20th, 2021 at 07:18:23 PM EST
[ Parent ]
My interest is neurological not hematological.  

We know cells communicate using extracellular vesicles, e.g., exosomes, containing mRNA packed with ribosomes for local translation.  We know local translation at the pre- and post- synaptic cleft is necessary for brain information processing.  (Presynaptic Translation: Stepping Out of the Postsynaptic Shadow.)  We know Circulating Exosomes Are Strongly Involved in SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Communication between neurons and astrocytes using extracellular vesicle is cutting edge research; we know it happens, the mechanisms & etc. are not fully understood.

It would be nice if we understood how SARS-CoV-2 hijacks exosomes.  We don't.

It would be nice if Covid-19 was EITHER a neurological disease XOR a blood disease but that's not the situation.

Neurological Involvement in COVID-19 and Potential Mechanisms: A Review

The effects of COVID-19 on the nervous system and neurological outcomes after successful treatment have not been well studied. There is an urgent need for clinical and laboratory research to characterize the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and neurologic injury. In particular, the broad variety of neurologic complications reported in association with COVID-19, such as ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, encephalopathy, and seizures, suggests direct effects of viral tropism for the CNS, indirect effects through injury to other organ systems, or sporadic synergy between infectious mechanisms and underlying conditions. Mounting evidence suggests that the novel coronavirus is both vasculotropic and neurotropic.  To elucidate these pathogenic pathways, larger and more systematic studies will be required, and relevant animal and tissue models must be developed and refined.

[emphasis added]

There are people directly investigating Covid as a blood disease:

COVID-19: hemoglobin, iron, and hypoxia beyond inflammation. A narrative review

and it is to them you'll have to turn for answers.  

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre

by ATinNM on Wed Jul 21st, 2021 at 04:47:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]
physiology (metabolic functions) and anatomy of the vascular system which circulates cellular structures throughout the body. Since "blood" is the medium of the whole range of biochemical processes, then SARS-CoV-2 is the "blood disease" that enters the vascular system by ordinary respiration. The assumption--impressed by annual if perfunctory CBC assays--that hematology merely validates morphological (ab)normalities hemoglobin such as sickle cell, is not quite correct, especially as the molecular basis of "blood" and pharmacology is organic chem, not fMRIs.
by Cat on Thu Jul 29th, 2021 at 09:48:25 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The Washingtonpost has some CDC slides.

Stuff we knew before the CDC's mask burning party:

New Delta stuff:

Apparently they can multiply 80% by 6 and get >1. Who could have known?

And again for management:

by generic on Fri Jul 30th, 2021 at 09:32:06 AM EST

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