Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.

Empire Building South-East Asia

by Oui Tue Jul 12th, 2022 at 12:49:10 PM EST

Japan's constitution and Article 9 guarantee for Pacifism died along with the death of Abe.

Death throes of an empire: nationalist spirit with advances in technology giving an edge relative to neighbouring states leads to feeling of superiority, dehumanizing other people as inferior. The ingredients for genocide and inhumane acts by a state. History repeating itself ... fascism. The fabric of a state and its culture falling outside the realm of multilateralism, going it alone. One can easily equate narrative of superiority with today's exceptionalism. All men (and women) are created equal and no false interpretation of a 250 year old constitution can change that. As the world burns and the glaciers melt.

Why Shinzo Abe faces an uphill battle to revise Japan's constitution | Brookings - Dec. 15, 2018 |

Will this revision effort succeed? It's an open question.

Part of the LDP proposal is to modify the constitution's Article 9 "peace clause," in which Japan renounces war and the maintenance of "war potential." This means the success/failure of the revision push carries significant implications for Japan and its U.S. ally. Depending on the wording, a revision could enable new military platforms, roles and missions for Japan's Self-Defense Forces.

Japan's rising right has pacifist constitution in its sights | Asia Times - Nov. 9, 2021 |

Second, the hawkish conservative Japan Innovation Party, (Nippon Ishin no Kai), won 41 seats, becoming the third-largest party in the chamber. That makes it a force to be reckoned with, and a potential booster for the right-wing ruling party, the Liberal Democratic Party, or LDP.

China lauds Japanese broadcaster for revealing Unit 731 war crimes

Arrested by the US occupation authorities at the end of World War II, Surgeon General Shiro Ishii and his protégés were to be thoroughly interrogated by the Soviet authorities, according to a 1984 BBC report.

Instead, Ishii and his team managed to negotiate and were secretly given immunity by the US in exchange for their full disclosure of germ warfare data based on human experimentation.

In a 2005 article for The Guardian, Richard Drayton, a Cambridge University history lecturer, claimed that Ishii later went to Maryland in the US to advise on bioweapons.

It has been speculated that Shiro Ishii went to Fort Detrick, which was the main center of the US biological weapons program from 1943 to 1969. Following the discontinuation of the program, the center continued to function as the hub of the country's biological defense program.

The NHK documentary has been well received in China, where there is a deep anguish over Japanese war crimes. Commentators on Chinese social media have remarked that "the recognition of war crimes is the first step toward solid Sino-Japanese relations."

United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency | NCBI - July 2015 |

In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds.

In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes.

    The questions of ethics and morality as they affected scientists in Japan and in the United States never once entered into a single discussion... In all the considerable documentation that has survived..., not one individual is chronicled as having said [biological warfare] human experiments were an abomination and that their perpetrators should be prosecuted.

It is informative to compare the American response in Japan with the work of one important figure in Germany, Canadian Air Force officer John W. Thompson. Thompson recognized the German experiments as war crimes that set a dangerous precedent for the scientific community, and was uniquely influential in persuading Allied authorities to act.

We first briefly summarize the experiments in the two countries, then describe Thompson's activities in postwar Germany.

Two of these justifications motivated the Japanese. They viewed the Chinese and Koreans as racially inferior. They also appealed frequently to patriotism. They were not, however, concerned about threats to Japanese racial purity; rather they simply wished to eliminate inferior populations and occupy their territories for Japanese imperialist expansion. The Japanese also argued that the prisoners used as experimental subjects, as suspected resisters and communists, would have been executed in any event.

Abe Visit to Controversial Tokyo's Yasukuni Shrine Draws Rare U.S. Criticism | WSJ - Dec. 26, 2013 |

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's surprise visit to a shrine linked to Japan's militarist past threatens to damage ties with the U.S. and jeopardize a pillar of the White House's diplomatic and military pivot to Asia.

The outing to Tokyo's Yasukuni Shrine triggered strong criticism from Beijing and Seoul, but also a rare admonition from Washington, which has pushed the Asian neighbors to mend ties strained by territorial disputes and differences over wartime history.

"The United States is disappointed that Japan's leadership has taken an action that will exacerbate tensions with Japan's neighbors," said the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo on its website, in an unusual direct criticism of Japan's leader by its main ally.

Imperial Criticism of Shinzo Abe

How Japan's Emperor (Subtly) Criticized Shinzo Abe

Emperor Akihito expressed "deep remorse" for the war at a memorial service and "a deep and renewed sense of sorrow," he did not openly attack the somewhat ambiguous August 14 (2015) statement of Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe  on the same subject - the latter's remarks were filled with rhetorical twists and did not offer a new apology to Japan's wartime victims.

It was the first time that the emperor uttered the phrase "deep remorse" at the Nippon Budokan hall in Tokyo during the annual so-called "National Memorial Service for the War Dead."

The subtle gesture of releasing the surrender speech of his father as well as pictures of the rundown bunker in which Hirohito finally admitted utter and complete military defeat can be seen as a clear indication of what Akihito thinks about Japan's devastating wartime experience, as well as Shinzo Abe's historical revisionism.

As my colleague Yuki Tatsumi already pointed out (See: "Why You Should Listen to What Japan's Emperor Says on August 15"),  the emperor has identified "four dates that should not be forgotten" by the Japanese people from the watershed year 1945: June 23 (the Battle of Okinawa), August 6 (the atomic bombing of Hiroshima), August 9 (the atomic bombing of Nagasaki), and August 15 (the end of the war).

"It is most important for us to take this opportunity to study and learn from the history of this war, starting with the Manchurian Incident of 1931, as we consider the future direction of our country," Emperor Akihito already said during his 2015 New Year's address. The Manchurian Incident was a pretext for the Japanese invasion of northeastern China in 1931.

In 1936, Nobusuke Kishi, Shinzo Abe's grandfather, was sent to Manchuria to push for the industrialization of Japan's de-facto colony with the help of Chinese forced labor. After the war he was arrested as an alleged Class-A war criminal and accused of playing an instrumental part in setting up Manchuria's (back then known as Manchuko) wartime economy which was "designed to enable Japan to carry on an aggressive war." Kishi, however, was never indicted and became Japan's head of government in the 1950s. During his premiership, Kishi pushed for constitutional revision and rearmament but failed. Shinzo Abe appears to have taken up the family's baton in both instances and it is his sense of family honor that perhaps has Emperor Akihito worried the most.

Nobusuke Kishi [Abe's grandfather]did became PM in Japan around late 50s to 60s. Even though he's a outright war criminal, the NATO need a strong allies in East Asia, so Kishi a very anti communist politicians was put to power, he ratified the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan  with US, expanding Japan rights to defence itself and strengthen the JSDF. This again sparkled mass protest by the Japan leftist, communist and general public as they fear Japan may go to war again.

Memorandum of a Conversation, Visit Japan PM Kishi Nobusuke to White House, Washington, June 19, 1957

Japanese Emperor steps down

Japan's New Order and Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: Planning for Empire | APJJF - Dec. 6, 2011 |


This essay examines the ideology and politics of Japanese technocrats during the Pacific War. Focusing on Kishi Nobusuke and his faction of reform bureaucrats, it analyzes how these technocrats viewed the war as an unprecedented planning opportunity to realize their vision of Japan's New Order and Asian empire.

In 1915, the theorist of technocracy Thorstein Veblen prophetically wrote about a temporary window of opportunity for Japan to combine its national spirit and recently acquired industrial technology with maximum effect in a major military offensive. Veblen predicted that the window would gradually close as modern technical advances eroded traditional notions of community and loyalty and introduced a materialistic and commercial mindset bringing about the "sabotage of capitalism."1 A quarter of a century later, however, Japanese technocrats remained exceedingly optimistic about their country's prospects for war and empire. They were determined to "overcome the modern," despite the attempts of "status quo" businessmen and bureaucrats to derail the New Order movement. They believed that more than Japan's material resources, its human resources, namely the patriotic spirit, courage, discipline, and creativity of its people, were the fount of national strength.

On August 1, 1940, Foreign Minister Matsuoka Yōsuke announced the government's policy to build a so-called "Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere." The term Greater East Asia implied that in addition to the core region of Japan, Manchukuo, and China, the sphere would include Southeast Asia, Eastern Siberia, and possibly the outer regions of Australia, India, and the Pacific Islands. The new policy to expand the boundaries of Japan's empire beyond East Asia emerged after France and the Netherlands fell to Nazi Germany in the late spring of 1940 and forfeited their colonies in Southeast Asia. Japan subsequently advanced into French Indochina in June 1940. Three months later in September 1940, Japan concluded the Triple Axis Pact with Germany and Italy. When diplomacy failed to lift economic sanctions imposed by the United States, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 8, 1941. These actions set the country on a course of brutal occupation of Asia and a destructive war against the United States and its allies that culminated in Japan's total defeat in 1945.

Conceptual Twist of Japanese Nuclear Policy: Its Ambivalence and Coherence Under the US Umbrella

From 1954 to 1972, when the US administration of Okinawa was returned to the Japanese authorities, US military forces installed 18 types of nuclear weapon systems in Okinawa, such as the 280 mm gun, the depth bomb, nuclear missiles like Mace and Falcon, and nuclear rockets like Honest John. The number of nuclear weapons totaled around 1300 at its peak in 1967. The US also introduced nuclear arsenals into South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Guam, in addition to Okinawa. The number of the US nuclear weapons deployed to the Asia Pacific region totaled more than 3200 at peak, which means Okinawa took the lion's share of the arsenals introduced (Norris, Arkin, and Burr, 2018).

Japan: The Anti-Treaty Narrative and the Fall of Kishi Nobusuke

Japanese Prime Minister Kishi Nobusuke became the primary target of the anti-treaty movement in 1960. Not one to take things lying down, the harder Nobusuke pushed, the worse his image and the political situation became. The more he ignored dissent, the more he further enhanced the opposition's argument that he was a man of Japan's ugly fascist past, and not a man of its democratic future.

The Kishi Effect: A Political Genealogy of Japan-ROK Relations

Ukraine war puts Japan's pacifist constitution in election spotlight | Nikkei Asia - July 4, 2022 |

Article 9 reads: "Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes." It also says that "land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained."

The LDP proposes adding a clear mention of the Self-Defense Forces and self-defense measures, while maintaining Article 9's current clauses. Separately, the party wants to strengthen the capabilities of the Diet and Cabinet to respond to emergencies, and to enhance education, ensuring opportunities are available regardless of households' financial situation.

Professor Inoue cautioned that changing Article 9 may not go over well with some of Japan's Asian neighbors and could affect their own security postures.

"Article 9 of the constitution is understood in Asian countries as a promise that Japan will never invade again," he said. "Therefore, if Japan were to make it easier to use its force, some countries would be wary. Friendly countries may not think so, but countries that could be hypothetical enemies, such as China or North Korea, may use it for their own security policy."

The most astounding nonsequitor circulationg anglophone MSM this week, so far, is, Abe's premature death secured LDP majority in another chamber of parliament and Kashida's popularity with common folk.

10 June, NY Yella Cake headline Shinzo Abe's Party Triumphs in Parliamentary Vote, Extending Legacy exemplifies US-INDOPACOM glee.

TOKYO -- Two days after Japan's former prime minister  Shinzo Abe was gunned down at a campaign stop on Friday, his Liberal Democratic Party and its allies swept to victory in a parliamentary election that gave them a chance to pursue Mr. Abe's long-held ambition of revising Japan's pacifist Constitution.

It was the clearest sign that Mr. Abe, Japan's longest-serving prime minister,  remained a guiding political force. Even before his death,  he was no longer leader of the country or its governing party, but his legacy ["Abenomics"?] shaped voters' choices at the ballot box [BWAH!] and his party's vision for the future

"I have the responsibility to take over the ideas of former Prime Minister Abe," the current prime minister, Fumio Kishida, told a crowd west of Tokyo on Saturday, the day after Mr. Abe's killing, as he campaigned for their party's candidates for the Upper House of Parliament.

The Liberal Democrats and their coalition partners gained enough seats in Sunday's election to form a crucial two-thirds supermajority. They can now amend a clause in the Constitution, imposed by postwar American occupiers < wipes tears >, that renounces war. That long-held goal would open the door for Japan to become a military power, capable of global leadership. ...

like GERMANY but better
by Cat on Tue Jul 12th, 2022 at 07:55:36 PM EST
Unification Church confirms mother of Abe suspect is member | Reuters - The Guardian |

Moon, who spoke fluent Japanese, launched an anti-communist group in Japan in the late 1960s, the International Federation for Victory Over Communism, and built relations with Japanese politicians, according to the church's publications.

Nobusuke Kishi, Abe's maternal grandfather and a former prime minister, was an honorary executive chair at a group banquet hosted by Moon, the International Federation for Victory Over Communism said on its website.

Unification Church linked to Abe's death, sounds alarm in China over cult group's infiltration | Global Times |

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Tue Jul 12th, 2022 at 11:00:53 PM EST
[ Parent ]
On second thought, Japanese MSM is offering a motive for syndication. The motive is avenging his mother's bankruptcy, attributed to tithes collected by the Unification Church.

Guardian investigative journalists are on it.

by Cat on Tue Jul 12th, 2022 at 08:22:20 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jul 14th, 2022 at 01:25:58 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jul 14th, 2022 at 08:14:40 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jul 15th, 2022 at 06:07:53 PM EST
by Cat on Sun Jul 17th, 2022 at 12:08:11 AM EST
... The critical event that likely triggered the process leading to Abe's assassination was the NATO summit in Madrid (June 28-30).

The NATO summit was a moment when the hidden players behind the scenes laid down the law for the new global order. NATO is on a fast track to evolve beyond an alliance to defend Europe and to become an unaccountable military power, working with the Global Economic Forum, the billionaires and the bankers around the world, as a "world army," functioning much as the British East India Company did in another era.

The demands made of Japan were suicidal in nature. Japan was to increase economic sanctions on Russia, to prepare for possible war with Russia, and to prepare for a war with China. Japan's military, intelligence and diplomatic functions were to be transferred to the emerging blob of private contractors gathering for the feast around NATO.

We do not know what Abe did during the week before his death. Most likely he launched into a sophisticated political play, using of all his assets in Washington D.C., Beijing, and Moscow--as well as in Jerusalem, Berlin, and London, to come up with a multi-tiered response that would give the world the impression that Japan was behind Biden all the way, while Japan sought out a détente with China and Russia through the back door.

The problem with this response was that since other nations had been shut down, such a sophisticated play by Japan made it the only major nation with a semi-functional executive branch.

Abe's death parallels closely that of Seoul's mayor Park Won Sun, who went missing on July 9th, 2020, exactly two years before Abe's assassination. Park took steps in Seoul City Hall to push back on the COVID-19 social distancing policies that were being imposed by the central government. His body was found the next day and the death was immediately ruled a suicide resulting from his distress over charges of sexual harassment by a colleague....

coincidentally ...
pmindia.gov.in | PM's speech at inauguration of Akhil Bhartiya Shiksha Samagam in Varanasi, 7 July low frequency scandal rippling the innerboobs

As you are aware the basic premise of the National Education Policy is to take education out of narrow thinking and to integrate it with the modern ideas of the 21st century. There was never a dearth of intellect and talent in our country. But, unfortunately, we inherited a system where education meant only securing jobs. During their rule, the British provided this education system to prepare a servant class for themselves to meet their needs. Though there were minor changes in it after independence, much remained unchanged. The system created by the British was never part of Indian ethos and it can't be. If we look at the ancient times of our country, we had the concept of different arts in education. And Banaras is a living example of this. Banaras was the center of knowledge not only because it had good Gurukuls and educational institutions. Banaras was the center of knowledge because knowledge and education here was multi-dimensional and multi-sector. This diversity in education should also be the source of inspiration for our education system. We should not only create degree-holder youth, but prepare an education system which should provide whatever human resources needed for the country to move forward. Our teachers and educational institutions should take a lead in this resolve. The faster our teachers imbibe this spirit, the more the youth and the students will benefit and so will be the future of the country. ...

by Cat on Sun Jul 17th, 2022 at 12:20:22 AM EST
[ Parent ]
The Blob Is Back Under Biden

The flip side of Building Back Better (BBB)

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Mon Jul 18th, 2022 at 06:06:15 AM EST
[ Parent ]
à propos "education system to prepare a servant class"

HANKYOREH | Why S. Korea's rich spend a fortune to guarantee their kids' admission to top schools overseas

So far, the Hankyoreh has taken a tour of the supply chain behind the global "application qualification" industry, with stops in San Jose, Gangnam, Kenya, and Pakistan. It includes US college entrance consulting with hefty price tags; South Korea's international schools, where tuition alone can reach 45 million won a year (in the case of the high school curriculum at the Chadwick International school in Incheon); and ghostwriting of academic papers by educated people in low-income countries.
Student parents are pouring huge sums of money all through the global chain. It's an industry precariously positioned on the borders of legality; the principles of "scholarship" are thrown out the window.
As we reach the end of this uncomfortable journey, there is still one question to be answered: what kind of demand has given rise to such a skewed industry? What are the forces that have turned the "qualification industry" into such a juggernaut?
The focus of the desires, the envy, and the frustration is status in a global elite defined by diplomas from top US universities. We listened to experts and looked at the statistics and research to find what sort of meaning the "global elite" holds in the South Korean society of 2022. ...
archived Whatever the party, our political elite is an Oxbridge club, Harvard, UNC affirmative action challenge, and Elite universities accused of conspiring to exclude low-income students
by Cat on Mon Jul 18th, 2022 at 02:24:19 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian's Regular Press Conference on July 19, 2022
Bloomberg: China has invited the leaders of four European countries, including Germany, France, Italy and Spain to meet with the Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing in November. This is according to a report from the South China Morning Post. My question is, can you confirm that this invitation has been sent to the four leaders? And can you also confirm that the European leaders have not yet responded?

Zhao Lijian: I wonder where they got the information. 

I can tell you that this is fake news. 

by Cat on Tue Jul 19th, 2022 at 06:45:42 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jul 21st, 2022 at 04:08:59 PM EST
Scott Morrison was 'not going to risk' AUKUS by consulting with Labor earlier on landmark deal | Sky News |

From the diaries ...

The Big Lie China

PM Mark Rutte travels to London today to visit his friend and Conservative colleague Boris Johnson ... it's about Afghanistan he says. 🤥 Hard to believe as his caretaker Cabinet was shaken by vote of censure in Dutch lower house yesterday.

The East-West propagandists are having a field day ... 😄

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jul 21st, 2022 at 04:13:26 PM EST
[ Parent ]

The House passed the PACT Act by a 342-88 vote on July 13. about a month after the Senate passed the bill by a vote of 84-14.

The Senate had to retake the bill up because the House passed some minor changes in its version.

The legislation adds 23 toxic and burn pit exposure conditions to the Department of Veterans Affairs database, while expanding care for post-9/11 veterans who were exposed to the burn pits.

The burn pits were used for the combustion of medical waste, human waste and other waste needed for disposal. Exposures to those toxins can lead to asthma, rhinitis and cancer.

Health issues due to use Agent Orange

It also opens up care for veterans in the Vietnam-war era who were exposed to Agent Orange in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Guam, American Samoa and Johnston Atoll.

Effects of Agent Orange on the Vietnamese people

No one has been held accountable in a court of law for chemical warfare and committing a crime against humanity. Unimaginable scale of dispersing 19 million gallons of herbicide in 9,141 missions over Vietnam.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jul 29th, 2022 at 11:35:30 AM EST
Senator Gillibrand Calls For New Legislation To Help Veterans With Diseases Linked To Burn Pits And Other Toxic Exposures Obtain Benefits From VA | Oct. 2020 |

Approximately 3.5 million veterans have been exposed to burn pits that spewed toxic fumes and carcinogens into the air. Yet, despite the known health consequences of burn pit and other toxic exposures, the U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) continues to deny burn pit related disability claims for nearly 8 in 10 veterans. 

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jul 29th, 2022 at 11:36:13 AM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Jul 30th, 2022 at 12:57:46 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 02:27:22 PM EST
Earlier today, the US secretary of state said there was "no justification" for China's military drills around Taiwan after the US House speaker Nancy Pelosi's visit to the island.

Addressing a news conference on the sidelines of the Asean regional forum meeting, Antony Blinken said the US had repeatedly told China it did not seek a crisis. He added that Pelosi's visit was peaceful but China chose to "overreact".

Interview of Blinken's deputy Derek Chollet with TRT World on Taiwan, he refused to answer a question put forth whether both president Joe Biden and the Pentagon attempted to persuade Nancy Pelosi on her visit to Taipei. The State department had a new narrative for the world, and any dissent could not be broadcast.

Biden says military does not support Nancy Pelosi trip to Taiwan| NBC News - July 21, 2022 |

White House worried by Nancy Pelosi's controversial trip to Taiwan | LeMonde - July 27, 2022 |

Joe Biden plans to meet with Xi Jinping as early as Thursday, Bloomberg reports

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 02:28:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 02:29:42 PM EST
[ Parent ]
How Biden bungled the Pelosi trip | Politico |

Speaker Nancy Pelosi concluded her whirlwind 19-hour visit to Taiwan Wednesday, leaving behind fevered messaging on both sides of the Taiwan Strait about the significance of her visit.

But she'll return to a muddled mess in Washington, bracketed by warnings from journalists [NYT] and China experts [NYT] about the long-term damage that her visit may have inflicted and rare GOP lawmaker applause for thumbing her nose at Beijing.

What may linger longest is how the Biden administration's fumbling of the public narrative for Pelosi's trip bolstered the Chinese government's depiction of her journey as an inflammatory escalation in U.S. engagement with Taiwan.

Taiwan expressed near-rapture -- electronic welcome billboards with heart emojis lit up the Taipei 101 skyscraper and Pelosi was bestowed with a government honor called the Order of the Propitious Clouds with Special Grand Cordon.

Members US Congress are infantile at best IMO - thumbing your nose at 1.4 billion Chinese - and most dangerous at worst in global politics. In last two decades the American anger has translated into unnecessary wars and hostile confrontation. Much has changed in 25 years when Newt Gingrich had 3-day visit to Beijing before his Taiwan visit. In fact, he eased tensions and invited Chinese lawmakers for a counter visit to Washington DC. Pelosi is arrogant, power hungry and condescending to China leadership. Members US Congress been consistently on the wrong side of history based on lies and propaganda.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 02:32:03 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 03:54:16 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 04:46:58 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:13:10 PM EST

ASEAN Gala Dinner: China's Wang Yi Storms out Minutes after Arriving as Blinken, Lavrov Attend

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:14:12 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Taiwan flare-up clouds Asia ministerial gathering as US, China trade barbs

China on Thursday cancelled talks with Japan over remarks made in a G7 statement on Taiwan and that same day, Chinese foreign minister Wang Yi walked out moments before a gala dinner attended by his U.S. and Japanese counterparts, without giving a reason.

On Friday, Wang and Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov walked out of a plenary session just as Japan's top diplomat, Yoshimasa Hayashi, spoke.

Wang called a rare news conference late on Friday, where he accused Blinken of spreading misinformation.

He called Pelosi's trip a "contemptible farce" and stressed China's military response to it was "firm, forceful and appropriate", and handled professionally.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:15:15 PM EST
[ Parent ]

China's countermeasures after Pelosi's visit are necessary, says Chinese FM in response to Western accusations of 'overreaction'

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:18:23 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Washington DC and the White House losing the PR fight ...

White House [NSC] spokesman John Kirby told the media on Thursday that "China has chosen to overreact and use the speaker's visit as a pretext to increase provocative military activity in and around the Taiwan Strait."

Kirby called China's actions part of a "manufactured crisis" but also said that Beijing was attempting to alter the regional power balance. 

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg also said the same day that China had no reason to overreact after Pelosi's visit.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:19:26 PM EST
[ Parent ]

My recent diary ...

Empire Building South-East Asia

Japan's constitution and Article 9 guarantee for Pacifism died along with the death of Shinzo Abe.

Death throes of an empire: nationalist spirit with advances in technology giving an edge relative to neighbouring states leads to feeling of superiority, dehumanizing other people as inferior.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:34:01 PM EST
Japan's Pacifism Is Dead | Sept. 2015 |

In September 2015, the Japanese government under Prime Minister Shinzo Abe passed a package of controversial security bills that made it possible for Japan to participate in collective self-defence - that is, to respond militarily to an attack on a 'friendly' country as though Japan itself had been attacked.

The bills overturned the interpretation that Japan's constitution forbids the country from engaging in collective self-defence, a view the Japanese government had stood by for more than 60 years.

Japan's "Reinterpretation" of Article 9: A Pyrrhic Victory for American Foreign Policy?

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:36:02 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:57:32 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:58:28 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 06:59:20 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 07:00:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]

VOA interview: Blinken says China's reaction to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's visit to Taiwan is "disproportionate and dangerous"

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 5th, 2022 at 09:15:01 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 6th, 2022 at 08:45:27 AM EST
Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on August 5, 2022

If there are no further questions, I would like to recommend an article to you, especially media outlets from Europe and the U.S. including Reuters and Bloomberg. In response to US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi's op-ed titled Why I'm leading a congressional delegation to Taiwan published on August 2, the Chinese Ambassador to the US Mr. Qin Gang published an article titled Why China objects to Pelosi's visit to Taiwan on The Washington Post on August 4.

Ambassador Qin Gang's article is very well written. It provides a very clear and succinct outline of the historical context of the Taiwan question. I'm sure this will help you gain a deeper understanding of the Taiwan question and a deeper and accurate understanding of why China is opposed to Pelosi's visit to Taiwan.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 6th, 2022 at 05:40:41 PM EST
Taiwan has been an inseparable part of China's territory for 1,800 years.

In 1943, the leaders of China [Chiang Kai-shek], the United States [Roosevekt] and Britain [Churchill] issued the Cairo Declaration, which clearly states that all territories Japan stole from the Chinese, such as Taiwan, shall be restored to China. The Potsdam Declaration of 1945 affirmed that the terms of the Cairo Declaration would be carried out. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, passed in 1971, recognized that the representatives of the government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations.

Richard Nixon Opens Diplomatic Relations with China

When China and the United States established diplomatic relations on Jan. 1, 1979, the United States recognized in the joint communique with China that the government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government of China.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 6th, 2022 at 05:43:40 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The obdurancy of his host is astounding. One might reasonably suppose *-Eng is his second or fifteenth language and ear buds have fried his brain. Incidentally, "Fireside" is a CRM "solution" suite of software products endorsed by Roll Call and founded by Josh and Jeff, presumably two starving, former Congressional staffers yearning to be free: "Just as Franklin D. Roosevelt sought to bring government to constituents' living rooms during his 'fireside chats,' Fireside gave a new generation of legislators the same power."

by Cat on Sat Aug 6th, 2022 at 07:33:17 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 7th, 2022 at 07:23:27 PM EST
Two charts show how much the world depends on Taiwan for semiconductors | CNBC - March 2022 |

Taiwan's trade with China is far bigger than its trade with the U.S. | CNBC - Aug. 4, 2022 |

Many large Taiwanese companies in high-tech industries such the world's biggest chipmaker -- Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., or TSMC. -- operate factories in mainland China.

Last year, mainland China and Hong Kong accounted for 42% of Taiwan's exports, while the U.S. had a 15% share, according to official Taiwan data accessed through Wind Information.

In all, Taiwan exported $188.91 billion in goods to mainland China and Hong Kong in 2021. More than half were electronic parts, followed by optical equipment, according to Taiwan's Ministry of Finance.

Taiwan's exports to Southeast Asia were even greater than those to the U.S. -- at $70.25 billion to the region, versus $65.7 billion to the U.S., the data showed.
As a source of Taiwan's imports, mainland China and Hong Kong again ranked first with a 22% share. The U.S. only had a 10% share, ranking behind Japan, Europe and Southeast Asia.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 7th, 2022 at 07:24:17 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 7th, 2022 at 07:25:21 PM EST
[ Parent ]
That is one very weird biography -- akin to a study of conjoined twins once pickled in a mason jar. The "effect" is tenuous--an afterthought to fill the gaping holes left by US 8th Army and SCAP reconstruction. The reverence afforded the subjects' purported intimacy and casual fascist habits is comically perfunctory. Which reminded me why I distain biography.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Mon Aug 8th, 2022 at 12:38:35 AM EST
HANKYOREH | Yoon's haphazard diplomacy could spell calamity for Korea, 8 Aug book reviews
In his book "Empire and Righteous Nation: 600 Years of China-Korea Relations," Yale University professor Odd Arne Westad cites knowledge and identity as two reasons for this. Members of the Joseon elite had a good enough understanding of the Ming and Qing empires that they were able to devise measures to remain independent from them. Also an important factor was the fact that the Korean Peninsula's people had long maintained an identity distinct from China.
The "righteous nation" in Westad's title refers to how the foundation of national identity for the people living on the Korean Peninsula lay in the concept of "righteousness," which had manifested among the "righteous armies" fighting back against foreign powers.
The current fluctuations in the international order can be compared to the transition period between the Ming and Qing dynasties. At the time, the incompetent diplomacy of King Injo of Korea remained tied up in loyalty to Ming, inciting the calamity of the second Manchu invasion of Korea. The king ultimately suffered the humiliation of being forced to bow before Hong Taiji of the Qing dynasty.
In "Review of Hong Taiji's War: Qing Invasion of Joseon Korea in 1637," a comprehensive study that even looked at Manchu materials, Seoul National University professor Koo Bum-jin tells a slightly different story. ...
Yonhap | S. Korea's top diplomat heads to China for talks on supply chain, N. Korea, 8 Aug
In his first trip to China since taking office in May, [FM] Park [Jin] flew to the eastern port city of Qingdao to meet bilaterally with Wang Yi on Tuesday, as Seoul and Beijing are commemorating the 30th anniversary of the establishment of their diplomatic ties on Aug. 24. Park will be the highest-ranking South Korean official visit to China under the Yoon Suk-yeol administration launched in May.

One of the most pressing issues is the U.S. proposal for a semiconductor alliance known as the "Chip 4," also involving Japan and Taiwan, viewed by China as aimed at countering its influence. The foreign ministry has reportedly expressed Seoul's intent to join a preliminary meeting of Chip 4, expected to be held around early September, before deciding on its membership.

Assembly Speaker [Kim Jin-pyo] steps up arms sale campaign in Romania, 9 Aug
by Cat on Tue Aug 9th, 2022 at 02:06:12 AM EST
[ Parent ]
wikiwtf | List of US arms sales to Taiwan, 1979 - 2022.06.08
subtotal: USD 89.393B

+ 19 July 2022: USD 0.108B

Following Pentagon approval, the sale moves to the U.S. Congress for approval. If it is passed, it will become the fifth arms sale under the Biden administration and the fourth sale approved this year. Taiwan Presidential Spokesperson Zhang Dunhan said Taiwan was grateful to the U.S. government for "continuing to show great importance to Taiwan's defense needs and fulfilling its security commitments to Taiwan."

While the United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Taiwan, under the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act it is authorized to help the democracy defend itself. Much of the previous support has included arms sales and other technical assistance and training.

total: USD 89.501B
Some in Taiwan say the Biden administration is not doing enough because recent weapons sales have focused almost entirely on logistics and support as opposed to enhancing Taiwan's combat power. Following initial news of the $108 million sale in June, the U.S.-Taiwan Business Council said the new requirements were "undermining" Taiwan's defense capability by limiting the kind of items sold.

"There appears to now be little to no U.S. support for substantial Taiwan force modernization efforts," U.S.-Taiwan Business Council President Rupert Hammond-Chambers said in the statement.
In May, Taiwan's Ministry of National Defense also said it was abandoning plans to buy 12 MH-60R anti-submarine helicopters from the United States, citing expensive costs, although some Taiwanese analysts told local media they may have been ruled as outside of the scope of "asymmetric defense." Other weapons deliveries have been delayed by the war in Ukraine and production problems, including 250 Raytheon Technologies Stinger missiles purchased by Taiwan in 2019 and M109A6 "Paladin" self-propelled howitzers, according to Taiwanese state media.

MIT Tech Review | Corruption is sending shock waves through China's chipmaking industry, 5 Aug
by Cat on Tue Aug 9th, 2022 at 02:47:59 AM EST
A recipe for financial disaster ... let a party boss run a critical scientific chip industry without a master plan or blueprint. $20bn is a lot to waste ... starting in 2014, it should have begun to bear fruit by 2024. One needs the patents and be at the innovative phase of such a rapidly advancing industry. The Japanese did a better job in the seventies.

Chinese definition of corruption? Failure to meet CCP goals ... inaptitude in business and capitalism.

Philips Electronic industries in Eindhoven did much development of the chips industry. Lost out on large computers in Data Systems Apeldoorn, changed over to smaller computers in larger volumes and bought Signetics for its product range and know-how. Building chipmachines, Philips had the patents from major research centers across Europe and the spin-off was ASML. Bought a competitor in the US during the Bush years and PM Balkenende. Gratitude for joining the  action in the Iraq War.

Politicians Asking the Impossible Onshoring Chips

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Tue Aug 9th, 2022 at 07:40:56 AM EST
[ Parent ]
on garden variety Silicon Valley PE, now is it?
by Cat on Tue Aug 9th, 2022 at 02:32:22 PM EST
[ Parent ]

running time 00:13:37 (EN, MA)
by Cat on Fri Aug 12th, 2022 at 09:35:40 PM EST

Kurt Campbell, the US Indo-Pacific coordinator in the administration of President Joe Biden, said the operations will consist of "air and maritime transit through the Taiwan Strait over the next few weeks."

Campbell said that the efforts would be done in partnership with other G7 countries.

Tensions still high over Pelosi visit

The US Indo-Pacific coordinator also said China had overreacted to the recent visit of US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. He said China was hoping to exploit the visit to alter the status of Taiwan.

Likewise it's time for PLA to reciprocate with exercises off Florida Keys, the bandit State of DeSantis.

BTW A naval operation with the economic G7 taking the lead? Is NATO becoming too big with too many nations for a quick Asia response? What about the future oriented QUAD nations or allies in the Indo-Pacific? Is all going well ...

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 13th, 2022 at 03:11:38 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 15th, 2022 at 07:00:02 PM EST

Japanese politicians' worship of Yasukuni Shrine angers neighboring countries; reflects Tokyo's right-leaning tendency, more twisted historical view

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 15th, 2022 at 07:01:23 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 15th, 2022 at 07:49:33 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Xinhua | Filipino "Lolas" struggle for apology from Japan for "comfort woman" crime, 14 Aug
"an attempt to whitewash Japan's history of aggression"

HANKYOREH OpEd | Yoon brushes aside Korea's past with Japan, asks to move forward in Liberation Day speech, 16 Aug
"The problem is the reality of South Korea-Japan relations."

Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Wang Wenbin's Regular Press Conference on August 18, 2022

Shenzhen TV: According to reports, during the ninth China-Japan high-level political dialogue held yesterday, the Japanese side stated its position on the situation in the Taiwan Strait, said that China's military exercises involve Japan's EEZ and stressed the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait. Do you have any comment?
Wang Wenbin:...Some people in Japan claim that "Any contingency for Taiwan is a contingency for Japan". This is a wrong perception which has undoubtedly sent a very dangerous and wrong message to the "Taiwan independence" forces. ...
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan | Press Releases

VOA | China, Japan Officials Meet Amid Taiwan Tensions

Takeo [Akiba] met earlier this month with U.S. National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan in Washington, during which they "reiterated the importance of maintaining peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and reinforced their resolve to stand united against Russia's unjust and unprovoked war on Ukraine and united in support of the Ukrainian people," the State Department said in a news release...
Kyodo | Japan, China vow to continue dialogue despite Taiwan tensions
During their about seven-hour meeting on Wednesday in the Chinese city of Tianjin, Takeo Akiba, secretary general of Japan's National Security Secretariat, protested to China's foreign policy chief Yang Jiechi over Beijing's recent large-scale drills near Taiwan, according to a Japanese government official. [...] With the latest high-level talks held at the request of China, the two countries are believed to have discussed mending their ties and laying the groundwork for a summit meeting between Prime Minister Fumio Kishida and Chinese President Xi Jinping....
Mainichi | 1,000-plus people march in Tokyo to protest ex-PM Abe's state funeral: organizers
"After the rally, participants marched around the station, declaiming, 'The state funeral will destroy democracy.'"

Asia Times | Tokyo Electron sees rising risk in US chip war on China
imminent US CHIPS4 sanctions against US supplier sales to China

by Cat on Fri Aug 19th, 2022 at 01:25:12 AM EST
[ Parent ]

German documentary ... one year after Taliban takeover.

How life has changed for Afghans since the Taliban takeover | DW News |

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 15th, 2022 at 11:50:20 PM EST
US ship unable to get Solomon Islands' permission to dock, says Washington

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 09:04:58 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Sep 5th, 2022 at 12:30:47 PM EST

A balancing power: Indonesia needs to focus first on ensuring G20 run smoothly amid great power rivalry

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Mon Sep 12th, 2022 at 10:46:48 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Sep 24th, 2022 at 09:16:25 PM EST

Airbus to deliver 600th China-assembled A320 family aircraft by 2022

Airbus Wins $37 Billion China Jet Deals in Blow to Boeing - July 1, 2022

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat Sep 24th, 2022 at 09:17:37 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sun Sep 25th, 2022 at 11:24:03 AM EST

A clean sweep :-)

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sun Sep 25th, 2022 at 11:25:03 AM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sun Sep 25th, 2022 at 11:25:58 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Shinzo Abe was loved by western foreign powers ... protest centers around his link to the Moonies and re-militarization of Japan.

Shinzo Abe's Killing Puts Unification Church Under Microscope

The Japanese ruling party's ties to the South Korean sect stir public anger

My diaries ...

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Tue Sep 27th, 2022 at 09:17:49 AM EST
Protesters call for cancellation of state funeral for Japan's Abe | Al Jazeera |

"Abe's policies supported war," demonstrator Mayumi Ishida said on Friday, noting that Abe consistently sought to raise defence spending.

Like others at the protest, Ishida said he feared Abe's views heralded a step back to the days of Japan's militarism preceding World War II.

State funerals in Japan have been historically reserved for the emperor.

Yoshiko Kamata, a part-time worker at a convenience store, acknowledged the state funeral could not be stopped, but it was an opportunity to drive home her message that Abe never stood with the people.

"We want to show where we stand," she said, noting dictators were being invited to the state funeral.

"Just because he is dead, we aren't going to forgive Abe."

Related reading ...

The Atrocity Election: A Ballardian Forecast | by gmoke on Sep 26th, 2016 |

The links between consumerism and fascism are becoming commonplace with late stage capitalism in a world ecosystem collapsing under the thoughtless appetites of the human population as we see political violence and 24/7/365 mediated lone wolf and small group criminally insane terrorism.  In this book Ballard combines the mall with mob politics.  He does not really provide any answers but JG Ballard does have a detailed definition of the problem.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Tue Sep 27th, 2022 at 09:18:39 AM EST
[ Parent ]
A 💪🏽 US Dollar sweeping the globe ... see data 1931.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Sep 30th, 2022 at 09:03:58 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Oct 1st, 2022 at 09:24:26 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Oct 1st, 2022 at 09:25:20 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Oct 8th, 2022 at 08:42:43 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Oct 8th, 2022 at 08:43:22 PM EST
US President Joe Biden lashed out at China and said that it will not become the wealthiest or the most powerful country in the world on his watch. Biden said that US will hold China accountable and will continue to call the attention of the world to its human rights violations. "We are going to make it clear that, in order to deal with these things, we are going to hold China accountable to follow the rules, to follow the rules, whether it relates to the South China Sea or the North China Sea or the agreement made on Taiwan or a whole range of other things."

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Tue Oct 11th, 2022 at 09:25:13 PM EST
Disaster in Alaska | China Worker - Apr. 18, 2021 |

The first high-level meeting between Biden's team and their Chinese counterparts, in Anchorage on 18-19 March, began with an extraordinary slanging match. On the eve of the meeting, the US State Department sanctioned a further 24 Chinese and Hong Kong officials in response to China's decision to impose a new political system on Hong Kong, giving Beijing full control. The US sanctions were largely symbolic, in line with previous sanctions by Trump's administration, but their timing raised the temperature for the Alaska meeting.

The Alaska meeting was "a disaster" according to economist Stephen Roach. "The situation is going from bad to worse and it doesn't have to do that," he lamented. This view was shared by Allison Sherlock of Eurasia Group, "Anyone who was hoping there would be a significant de-escalation - largely people in the business community - can see that's not going to be possible, at least in the near term."

The representatives of both governments used the meeting to grandstand to a wider audience. This was a historic but rather bizarre encounter with each side seeking to talk up their national strengths. US Secretary of State Antony Blinken lectured the Chinese not to "bet against America" and slammed China's actions as a "threat to global stability".

Yang Jiechi, the director of the Office of the Central Commission for Foreign Affairs and a member of China's ruling Politburo, launched a scathing attack of the US record on human rights, its "long arm jurisdiction and suppression", and declared that "China's development and strengthening is unstoppable".

Speaking for sixteen minutes without a pause for translation, clearly for the benefit of the Chinese media rather than his American hosts, Yang told the Americans not to talk down to China: "The United States does not have the qualification to say that it wants to speak to China from a position of strength." Within days this statement had gone viral on China's social media. Even tee shirts were selling printed with this slogan.

US-China Summit Alaska Yang Jiechi vs Antony Biden

U.S.-China Summit in Anchorage, Alaska | C-Span - 72 min. |

Secretary of State Antony Blinken and National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan met in Alaska with Chinese Foreign Minister and State Councilor Wang Yi and Yang Jiechi, director of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission of the Chinese Communist Party.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Tue Oct 11th, 2022 at 09:26:27 PM EST
[ Parent ]
U.S. Slips in Global Ranking

U.S. research universities have seen a drop in citation impact and academic reputation as institutions in East Asia and the Middle East have been gaining ground

University rankings rightly cause rancor for reducing the glorious complexities of higher education institutions into a crude, composite number--and for having far too much influence over students' choices. But some rankings provide rich data insights that it would be wrong--indeed, dangerous--to ignore. This is the case with the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings, which released its 19th annual edition Tuesday.

The THE world rankings were established in 2004, not as a student consumer guide, sitting alongside rankings of best cars and best hospitals, but as a rigorous tool to help academics, administrators and policy makers in higher education make sense of their changing world. Indeed, THE devised the rankings in open consultation with the sector after a 2003 U.K. government report (the Lambert Review of University-Business Collaboration) lamented that the nation's leading research universities were too focused on benchmarking themselves against each other--"failing to recognize that in a global marketplace what counts is how they stand up against the best in the world."

The rankings rapidly became a closely watched barometer of the shifts in the global knowledge and innovation economy, as well as a resource for would-be students. The newly released edition examines the performance of 1,799 institutions from 104 countries, based on an analysis of more than 15 million research publications and 121 million citations to those publications, as well as 40,000 responses to a global academic reputation survey on top of data on institutional income and faculty demographics, including international talent recruitment and research collaboration.

China improves from 2 to 7 ... the Netherlands too has 7 in the top 100. Mark (Rutte) gladly will join Joe to add sanctions on China to stay ahead in rankings. Inequality pop. 18 million vs. 1.5 billion.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Thu Oct 13th, 2022 at 12:08:52 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Oct 13th, 2022 at 12:10:04 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Oct 13th, 2022 at 12:49:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Go to: [ European Tribune Homepage : Top of page : Top of comments ]