Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.

Biden's Victory Lap at Jackson Hole

by Oui Thu Aug 25th, 2022 at 05:59:01 PM EST

Jackson Hole Institutional investors will rate Europe as a developing nation and forego major capital injections in European stocks.

Word for Word 'Greenspan Shrugged': When Greed Was a Virtue And Regulation the Enemy | NY Times - July 21, 2002 |

Europe's fortunes have gone astray after financial crisis, austerity measures, inequality, Covid-19 pandemic, libertarian policies across the Western economic world ...

h/t by TGeraghty @EuroTrib on Aug 28th, 2006

Brad Setser has a unique way of looking at the importance  of the European economy to global growth:

Europe, engine of global demand growth ... [cached]

That isn't a headline that you see in mainstream economy commentary.    The standard story - one that is echoed in communiqué after communiqué - goes something like this.

Global rebalancing - code for a set of changes that will slow demand growth in the US and increase demand growth outside the US to help reduce the US deficit and the rest of the world's surplus - requires policy changes in Asia, the US and Europe.

Somehow, the oil exporters usually get left out despite having a bigger surplus than anyone else.

Dean Baker is one of my favorite US economists. He agrees with Jerome that Greenspan is guilty of recklessly blowing bubbles

The Federal Reserve Board is having its annual retreat at Jackson Hole, Wyoming and the agenda this year is devoted to a retrospective of Greenspan's 18-year tenure as Fed chairman. The world has not seen a greater display of obsequiousness since the death of Leonid Brezhnev. An economist whom I used to respect even called him the greatest central banker in history . . .

Let's get a few facts on record:

1) Mr. Greenspan ignored the stock bubble. . . . decided that it wasn't his job to do anything about the creation of $10 trillion in bubble wealth and the resulting economic distortions . . . . The tens of millions of people who saw much of their retirement savings disappear in the crash are just out of luck, as are the pension funds that are now insolvent ....

European Stocks Edge Lower; Jackson Hole Worries Weigh

Investing.com - European stock markets weakened Wednesday, with fresh hawkish comments from a Federal Reserve official prompting caution.

"It's very clear" the Fed has to tighten monetary policy, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis President Neel Kashkari said Tuesday in Minneapolis. "When inflation is 8% or 9%, we run the risk of unanchoring inflation expectations and leading to very bad outcomes."

These comments, the latest of a series of hawkish Fed speeches, mean investors are wary ahead of the central bank gathering at Jackson Hole in Wyoming later in the week, expecting Fed chair Jerome Powell to deliver an aggressive tightening message and dash hopes for a rate cut next year.

Back in Europe, inflation is nearing double digits, gas prices are soaring as the war in Ukraine becomes six months old, while Eurozone business activity contracted for a second straight month in August, suggesting a recession is looming.

JCPOA Draft Agreement Offered by Europe

Iran will not allow inspections beyond what is in a 2015 nuclear deal, the country's nuclear chief said on Wednesday, potentially scuppering a deal to revive Tehran's nuclear deal with world powers.

The U.S. is shortly set to respond to a draft agreement proposed by the European Union that would bring back the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran, potentially allowing Iran to export its crude onto the global market.

Also helping the tone was Tuesday's data from the American Petroleum Institute, an industry body, showed that U.S. crude inventories fell by 5.6 million barrels in the week to Aug. 19, far more than expectations for a drawdown of 450,000 barrels.

The market had sold off early as traders reassessed the chances of an imminent output cut by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and allies, a group known as OPEC+.

Capitalism in the 21st Century. Stagnation versus Growth in Europe? (2015)

Economic Implosion of the European Union, cut off from energy power house Russia, loses global competitive edge

Europe's new Energy Union aims at securing European energy supply - but, if not from Russia, where will Europe obtain its gas? | ECFR - April 2015 |

Our analysis covers the timeframe until 2025. Most of the EU's Russian gas contracts are expected to expire within this period, which will provide member states with the option to diversify their sources of supply. Ensuring European energy security will require more than investment in infrastructure and energy-specific know-how about interconnections and gas transit disruptions. It should form part of European energy diplomacy, with more concerted planning and action on the external side, including dialogue with global actors such as China (which is expected to be the major energy demand centre), the US, and Turkey (which is still only an observer in the Energy Community). This requires better coordination and shared decision-making within the Energy Union, with input both from the Commission and from the European External Action Service. A Special Envoy on International Energy Affairs could be appointed to oversee better coordination.

Russian Gas Made Europe a Global Leader

Value of the € dropped to lowest value against the dollar in 20 years and with a sudden rise of inflation to 10%, I personally lost in buying power a third of my life's savings. As I was self employed, the investment of my savings is my retirement pension. Today the Millennials in power in The Hague are focused to relieve the "lucky" Boomer generation of some of their wealth. Today's younger generation are some much less fortunate in present cut-throat libertarian capitalistic State of Rutte & Co.

Making It Millennial | The Atlantic - Mach 17, 2022 |

The well-being of any society depends on each successive generation's ability to contribute to the common good. Yet today's rising generation, the Millennials, faces many obstacles to success.

Today's rising generation, the Millennials, faces a particularly bumpy path down the road to success. Millennials' coming of age corresponds with a global financial meltdown, a housing bust, the worst recession in the United States since the Great Depression, and soaring higher education costs. While Americans of all ages share these same experiences, the ways in which they impact the rising generation, both now and in the long term, are unique. Consider the economic environment in which today's young people currently operate, and the changing family planning and consumption trends among the Millennial generation.

Economic realities

Millennials entered the workforce during or in the wake of the Great Recession. Among Millennial college graduates, unemployment and underemployment, at 8.8 percent and 18.3 percent respectively, are historically high compared with the same age cohort in prior generations, and wages for employed Millennials have dropped 7.6 percent since the onset of the Great Recession. High unemployment levels and low wages are making it difficult for many Millennials to make even minimal payments on their record-high amounts of student loan debt. At present, loan default rates are approaching historic highs, damaging Millennial credit scores along the way.

Now in its 11th year, the survey finds Gen Zs and millennials are striving for balance and advocating for change | Deloitte - 2022 |

Related reading ...

  • Exploring legacies of the baby boomers in the twenty-first century | April 2021 |
  • Inter-generational housing inequalities: `Baby Boomers' versus the `Millennials' | July 2018 |
  • Moody's affirms the European Union's (EU) Aaa rating, maintains stable outlook | March 17, 2022 |

    The decision to affirm the Aaa rating reflects the following key rating factors:

    1. The strong commitment of the EU's large and highly rated member states particularly the Government of Germany (Aaa stable), the Government of France (Aa2 stable) and the Government of the Netherlands (Aaa stable) to continue to support the institution financially.

    2. The successful implementation of the sharp increase in EU issuance and the ample financial resources available to service the increase in outstanding debt.

    The stable outlook reflects Moody's expectation that member states' willingness and ability to support the EU financially will remain very strong, and that the stability of the legal framework and financial commitments underpinning the EU's financial operations will remain intact.

    The stable outlook also reflects Moody's expectations that the EU will continue to be able to access very large volumes of funding on favourable terms to support the implementation of NGEU.

    Europe is now a corporate also-ran. Can it recover its footing? | The Economist - June 5, 2021 |

    Moody's lowers European growth forecasts amid energy crisis | 25 July 2022 |

    The Energy Relationship Between Russia and the European Union | Master Thesis - Feb.24, 2020 |

    A 10-Point Plan to Reduce the European Union's Reliance on Russian Natural Gas | IEA - March 2022 |

    Europe's reliance on imported natural gas from Russia has again been thrown into sharp relief by [combined EU and increased US sanctions imposed for] Russia's [imminent] invasion of Ukraine.

    In 2021, the European Union imported an average of over 380 million cubic metres (mcm) per day of gas by pipeline from Russia, or around 140 billion cubic metres (bcm) for the year as a whole. As well as that, around 15 bcm was delivered in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The total 155 bcm imported from Russia accounted for around 45% of the EU's gas imports in 2021 and almost 40% of its total gas consumption.

    A suite of measures in our 10-Point Plan, spanning gas supplies, the electricity system and end-use sectors1, could result in the EU's annual call on Russian gas imports falling by more than 50 bcm within one year - a reduction of over one-third.

    These figures take into account the need for additional refilling of European gas storage facilities in 2022 after low Russian supplies helped drive these storage levels to unusually [post-pandemic surge in demand from Asia and EU uncoordinated policy and failure to agree long-term Gazprom contracts resulting in less than average] storage levels.

    The 10-Point Plan is consistent with the EU's climate ambitions and the European Green Deal and also points towards the outcomes achieved in the IEA Net Zero Emissions by 2050 Roadmap, in which the EU totally eliminates the need for Russian gas imports before 2030.

    Russia's weak spot in fossil fuel economy

    Russia's Unsustainable Business Model: Going All In on Oil and Gas | HCSS The Hague - Jan. 19, 2021 |

    Revenues from oil and gas production are essential for Russia. Over the last decennium, they accounted for 40 to 50% of the Russian federal budget and about two thirds of Russian exports; percentages that are higher than those for the Soviet Union in the 1980's.

    Russia is, with Saudi Arabia and the United States of America (US), one of the top three global oil producers. Russian oil reserves are only the 7th largest in the world, however. The revival of Western Siberia's giant oil fields, which had seen major reservoir damage under Soviet times, was a significant achievement under the Putin era but has now run its course. Maintaining production levels in these fields, already for decades the backbone of Russian oil production, is becoming more difficult and costly. Exploration for new oil fields in Eastern Siberia has yielded limited success. Unconventional shale oil is a high-cost oil for which the Russian oil industry lacks the technical expertise. Large parts of the Arctic resources lie offshore, and the Russian oil industry has virtually no offshore operating experience. Sanctions are increasingly limiting the Russian oil industry's ability to maintain production levels.

    In contrast to Russia's more limited oil reserves its natural gas reserves are the largest in the world. The challenge here is not to produce the gas but to transport it and sell it at a profit. The rise of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) shipping now enables the monetisation of remote gas reserves (and these are plentiful) throughout the world. US shale gas is increasingly providing a soft ceiling for gas prices, as US shale oil has done for oil prices since 2014. Russia will remain the key supplier of gas for the European Union (EU) but with the advance of LNG, abundant LNG import capacity within the EU and the liberalization of European gas markets, its influence on gas prices has diminished.

    There is a remarkable symbiosis between the Putin regime and the Russian oil and gas industry. Oil and gas are the major source of income for the government. Oil and gas companies will not challenge the primacy of the Kremlin. Gazprom and Rosneft in particular will undertake projects where the geopolitical interests of the Russian government under Putin take preference over commercial considerations. Oil trading, rigged auctions of oil and gas assets as well as the construction of major projects, such as pipelines, at elevated prices, provide ample opportunities for the enrichment of the circle around Putin.

    Credit Rating Agencies: Part of the Solution or Part of the Problem During Financial Crisis? (2011)


    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Aug 25th, 2022 at 07:17:23 PM EST

    I'm thinking, either some of y'all forgot my quantitative and qualitative contribution to Energize America 2020/fuel efficiendy/vehicle replacement modeling following the short-lived GWB "cash4clunkers" subisidy pilot
    some EU "Greens" simply are unwilling or unable to accept that US Americans (especially highway commuters) will cling to their MoPars until hell freezes or spontaneously combusts, as the case may be.

    NEW ICE vehicle sales ban effective 2035 is not gonna cut demand in any US state (especially California) where resale > 12 yr now, MSRP > after-market price, real HH income has cratered, mass transit does not exist, and ICE/HH is nearly equivalent to guns/HH.

    by Cat on Thu Aug 25th, 2022 at 07:56:05 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Aug 25th, 2022 at 07:18:30 PM EST
    Spur | Governor's Proposed Budget Includes Focus on Housing as a Climate Strategy, 17 Feb after CARES state appropriations
    For the second year in a row, California will have a sizable budget surplus -- $45.7 billion to be exact, $20.6 billion of which is available for discretionary spending. And as pandemic recovery continues, there are a host of critical needs to be funded.
    The budget also notes that the $2.75 billion two-year commitment in last year's budget for [state housing and community development agency] HCD's Homekey program -- which finances the acquisition and conversion of hotels, motels and other buildings to housing for those experiencing homelessness or at risk of homelessness -- includes $1.3 billion in expenditures for fiscal year 2022-2023. ...
    lao.ca.gov | The Governor's Homelessness Plan, 9 Feb  FY 2022-2023
    including tenant "support services" provided by municipal case workers
    Update on Key Recent Homelessness State Spending. Recent budget actions reflect the increased role of the state in addressing homelessness. The state budget provided a total of $7.2 billion ($3.3 billion General Fund) in 2021‑22 to about 30 homelessness‑related programs across various state departments. We provide implementation updates for several of the major, recent homelessness augmentations.
    Housing Affordability Affects Homelessness. The state is facing a severe affordable housing crisis. Not surprisingly, those living in poverty are the most significantly affected. Rising housing costs [new construction and existing stock conversion] that have exceeded growth in wages, particularly for low‑income households, put Californians at risk of housing instability and homelessness. In California, around 2.5 million low‑income households are cost burdened (spend more than 30 percent of their incomes on housing). Over 1.5 million low‑income households face even more dire cost pressures--spending more than half of their income on housing. For this population, job loss or an unexpected expense could result in homelessness.

    Homelessness in California. While homelessness is a complex problem with many causes, the high costs of housing is a significant factor in the state's homelessness crisis. More people experienced homelessness in California than any other state. As of January 2020--the most recent year complete federal data is available--California has about 161,500 individuals experiencing homelessness, which represents about 28 percent of the total homeless population in the nation. ...

    LA Times | Affordable housing in California now routinely tops $1 million per apartment to build, 20 June NIMBY exaggeration
    by Cat on Thu Aug 25th, 2022 at 08:37:42 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    by Cat on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 03:37:55 AM EST
    All so predictable ...

    First round of war, Poland and Baltics in the lead ...
    Second round of economic implosion of EU, here too the Baltic states leads the continent in inflation 📶 >20%
    Expecting the ECB and Germany to subsidize failing states? LaGarde heading to Jackson Hole ...

    The Netherlands' sanction on Gazprom means all separate contracts of 120 cities will end by October. Nice. But there are no alternatives.

    The Hague has a Plan B ... leave the € zone and return to the guilder ... however that would be together with Germany as Rotterdam is connected to German Industrial Zone of the Ruhr.

    Return to a group of the original six nations plus Spain and Portugal. The Eastern nations will be the buffer states as a defense against Red terror from the Kremlin. Itself in a poor state of military power. Throw out NATO as it has been used to fight America's proxy wars for hegemony across the globe and provoke Russia and now China. War on Terror was a farce, led to tenfold bloodshed. Return to diplomacy.

    Unite to start a green economy to save the planet. 🌾🌳🌎🌏  

    In Germany the Gazprom entity was nationalized and new corporate structure with directors put in place. Now the group buys gas on the global market at highly elevated prices. Traders filling their pockets ... 🥹 and no one will declare the source, may well be Russian. Capitalism supercharged ‼️

    In the UK Boris Johnson is more clearly off duty as its economy implodes due to 4- or 8-fold energy pricing. Devastating for the weakest in society. Johnson partying with Lebedev ...

    It is not the recession I dread, they come and go. What hits hard is the inflation and basics in cost of living. Poverty causes family stress, hard choices to make and ultimately kills. More inequality where people fall into a debt hole there is no way to climb out.

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:19:13 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    According to Jakob de Haan, professor of political economy, the Netherlands has missed its target by canceling gas contracts with Gazprom Energy. "On balance, we are not putting a spoke in the wheel of Russia at all."

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:26:10 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Médecins Sans Frontières intervient auprès des demandeurs d'asile aux Pays-Bas : « Bizarre et honteux »

    Un bébé meurt dans un centre de demandeurs d'asile surpeuplé

    Rutte you are a loser just like your friends Trump and Johnson ... you need to get OUT!

    Rutte policy has always been harsh on refugees and asylum seekers. As the Dutch have welcomed 70,000 White refugees from Ukraine, in asylum entry center Ter Apel 700 adults have slept outside on the grass as placing emergency tents was deemed a danger for security. There is no willpower in Dutch politics to solve acute problems to relieve utter misery.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:42:56 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:53:26 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Refugees are sleeping outside in The Netherlands

    No showers, not able to wash, waiting for weeks to register, @MinPres Mark #Rutte you are a disgrace that this is what you have turned our country into @UNHumanRights please step in! #terApel #Holland

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:59:27 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Rutte doesn't solve problems, he sets policy so the weakest in society are eliminated, they are not productive and thus expendable. Rightwing populist ... party that formed #geertwilders #ritaverdonk #bolkestein #ayaanhirsiali #supportsyrianterror #collateraldeaths #natobombing #refugees

    Rutte pledges full focus on asylum as EU demands investigation into baby's death  🤥🤥🤥

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 08:21:24 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:47:30 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:50:40 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 08:02:17 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    There is no exceptional rush of asylum seekers at all. We just don't have the reception and identification procedure in order. And that's because we've been putting VVD members on that portfolio for more than a decade.

    #Rutte #VVD #ritaverdonk #geertwilders #extremists #ayaanhirsiali

    From Islamophobia to xenophobia to Russophobia and war in Europe within two decades ... SHAME

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 01:20:28 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 11:28:34 AM EST
    Nice offer, but do you have the technicians to install home improvements ...

    In the Netherlands builders and technical heating companies are fully booked for twelve months. Glad to have done my home improvements early last year. Sad day for millions across the UK and Western Europe.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 11:29:34 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 11:36:58 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 04:44:59 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 08:19:49 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Tackle fuel poverty and the climate crisis | The Guardian Opinion - Oct. 2020 |

    Experts are right to raise the alarm about the climate impacts of how we heat our homes. That the UK is on course to take 700 years to achieve low-carbon heating should spur the government to action (Report, 8 October).

    Its first step should be to end the subsidy for heating that maintains the high-carbon status quo and does little to help those in fuel poverty. The reduced VAT rate on domestic gas is discouraging innovation and investment in low-carbon heating technology, and the £2bn in uncollected revenue mainly benefits the wealthy because they use the most energy.

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 08:22:03 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Rising energy bills put millions of UK households at risk of winter catastrophe

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 08:23:32 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 12:37:22 PM EST
    Not in my neighborhood ... wealthy home owners are willing to pay any price to buy hotel and prevent settling of temporary refugees #nomorewar #xenophobia #russophobia

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 12:38:23 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 12:39:24 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Signs in the corn field ...

    Protest to block proposed asylum center of the state. As municipalities refused any offer, The Hague invoked their right to enforce housing and apply equal share across all 12 provinces.

    Free 🇳🇱
    becomes dictatorship

    No advice
    No AZC (asylum center)

    Cabinet clean-up own mess -
    Don't burden us with it

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 12:41:09 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Protest march with hundreds of activists against the arrival of asylum seekers' center in Albergen

    Same sort of protest outside center of Ter Apel ... must be terrifying for families with kids. Our WELCOME in a rich western country always willing to fight the wars "over there". Afghanistan - Iraq - Libya - Syria - ISIS in Iraq ... #WeAreNato

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 12:42:41 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Sep 3rd, 2022 at 07:34:56 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    #Apartheid #SouthAfrica #Indonesia #Surinam #Caribbean #DutchReformed #Holland(MI) #Hoekstra #ErikPrince

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 12:47:25 PM EST

    Flunks as crisis manager, not a problem solver ... after years of fooling the clout, electorate finally caught on.

    More on Mark ...

    Not so Calvinist any more -- The Party of Freedom [Wilders] benefits from Dutch austerity fatigue | The Economist - Oct. 2013 |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 02:01:31 PM EST
    Czech PM says 'emergency measures' needed as energy situation 'damaging the whole European Union'.

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 05:10:29 PM EST

    Too many states and its peoples live in the past 50-100-150 years or centuries ago. You are not fit to have joined the European Economic Union ... despicable.

    The Nazis and Communists did not only fight against their opponents, but also took revenge on their children, relatives and friends. This is also why the struggle against communism and Nazism must be constantly remembered.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 05:12:50 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Don't look to America for leadership in peace ☮️

    Shred all treaties with foreign adversaries as we did with Ukraine and the Minsk agreements. No compromise, no talks ... bullying tactics usually works. #majdan #coupd'état

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 05:14:00 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    euractiv | WE WANT A WAIVER, 25/26 Aug human rights watch
    as it struggles to find a replacement for its contract with Russian gas supplier Gazprom in time [for christmas?].
    "We will ask for an exemption for our current arrangement until 1 January 2023 to guarantee the safety of supply and to facilitate negotiations," [alderman Saskia Bruines] said.

    Bruines said she was confident the delay would be granted, as The Hague had fulfilled the condition of holding a timely tender without a positive result.

    However, she added that any new contract set to enter into effect on 1 January would be significantly costlier than the city's current arrangement with Gazprom.

    Bloomberg | Treasury Official Sees ["]Price Cap["] on Russian Oil by December, 20 July
    A price cap on price fixing Russian oil should go into effect alongside the December implementation of the European Union's restrictions on bid-rigging shipping insurance for the commodity...

    G7 prix fixe and bid-rigging UPDATE!

    by Cat on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:38:23 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    NADAQ | Norway won't instruct energy firms to sell cheap gas, minister says, 26 Aug
    The spot price of European gas TRNLTTFMc1 has tripled this year as the continent scrambles to replace dwindling Russian supplies, resulting in record profits for producers such as Equinor EQNR.OL and sharply boosting Norway's tax revenue.

    Sofie Marhaug, a member of parliament for the opposition [!] Marxist Red Party, said Norway should consider showing solidarity with Europe by instructing firms to offer fixed-price gas deliveries below current market prices.

    In his letter, Minister of Petroleum and Energy Terje Aasland rejected the idea, arguing that suppliers were already free to enter into long-term contracts if commercial terms were agreed with customers.

    < wipes tears >
    "I do not plan for a policy whereby petroleum firms on the Norwegian continental shelf are instructed to enter into fixed-price contracts for gas deliveries," Aasland wrote.
    "To disturb the market and make ... rules that look good right now could contribute to ruining some of the ground for building stability and trust over time," Aasland said in the Aug. 23 interview.
    by Cat on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 11:08:05 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    EXCLUSIVE-Norway eyes high gas output until 2030, says energy minister, 23 Aug
    The price of European gas has almost tripled this year, having repeatedly hit new records. Still, Norway does not plan to sell gas at below market price, as some analysts and media have proposed.
    He added Norway did not plan to introduce a windfall tax on Norwegian oil companies, despite them reaping record-high cash flows.
    by Cat on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 11:23:19 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 01:01:54 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    The run to the Russian war of aggression last year beginning with faulty allegations of Gazprom subverting oil and gas futures, yella sheet reporters have milled much grist out of OBSCENE profits reported by Europe- and US-based manufactures--who do not actually possess fossil fuel and CRITICAL mineral deposits "hosted" by low-emission producing, trrrized third countries.

    European leaders to skip climate summit with Africa, 25 Aug
    "It's probably not the best time in Europe to be raising funds for something that nobody cares all that much about."
    Lost in translations of supply and value chain arbitrages on which "developed nations" depend to maintain "energy intensive" industries are myriad fruits of comparative wealth and mundane comforts that reward "stakeholders" of global leadership in kind and credit simply for laundering the least dirty collars in each others' hampers.

    europeandgi | 30 real European Dividend Aristocrats in 2022
    • having shown resilience ["sustainability"?] during the Great Recession and the 2020 pandemic. They have either increased or sustained their dividend since at least since the beginning of 2000.
    • the company [price/share] is of blue-chip nature, hence having at least a 5 billion market cap.
    Allianz | European dividend payouts expected to reach record highs in 2022, 1 Jan 2022
    "Dividends lend stability to many portfolios, especially in years with negative price developments, as they can compensate for price losses in whole or in part. According to our calculations, the average equity volatility of dividend payers is significantly and systematically lower than that of non-payers - we are talking about a difference of more than 10 percentage points for the broad European equity market." In Europe, the dividend culture is particularly strong compared to the US and Asia. In the period 1976 to the end of 2021, about 34 percent of total equity returns here were attributable to dividends.
    Reuters | Analysis: Volatile U.S. markets boost appeal of dividend stocks, 12 July
    Investors are giving the shares of dividend=paying stocks a second look as as they seek to buttress their portfolios against surging inflation and sharp declines [?] in asset prices.
    by Cat on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 04:25:37 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    euractiv | European dividends grow by 28.7% in Q2 2022, 26 Aug, not yer second-cousin's former-wife's pension's index fund manager's liquidity
    This does not go down well with labour representatives who feel the burden of inflation is unevenly carried by workers. For the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the discrepancy between dividend growth and wage growth shows that "excessive corporate profits - not wages - are driving inflation."
    by Cat on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 05:12:29 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Reading from the White House new directives ... young WEF leaders like De Croo - Baerbock - Rutte - and so on.

    #copy #paste #WeAreNato #JensStoltenberg

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:57:04 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:02:23 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:04:31 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:08:25 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    A bit late for Israel to put forth red lines ... a snap-back clause for the US to join Israel in attack on Iran in case of a threat?

    After Declaring PaIestinian Civil Society "Terrorists," US Fetes Benny Gantz with White House, CENTCOM Meetings | Tikun Olam |

    Joe Biden delay to revive Obama era Iran Nuclear deal ... #midterms #Congress

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 01:46:45 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Israel Crosses 'Red-Line' with Criticism of Obama and Kerry | Jul 28, 2014 |

    Related reading ...

    IDF's New Media - War Propaganda Through Social Media | Nov 16, 2012 |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 07:12:02 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 08:00:03 PM EST

    Zuck throws FBI under bus. Macron, end of abundance. The Hague, we need Russian gas.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 08:02:48 PM EST

    Belgian PM Warns "Next 5-10 Winters Will Be Difficult" As Energy Crisis Worsens

    Alexander De Croo: «Les cinq à dix prochains hivers seront difficiles»

    « L'évolution de la situation est très difficile dans toute l'Europe. Certains secteurs sont confrontés à de lourdes difficultés avec ces prix élevés de l'énergie », a constaté le Premier ministre.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Aug 26th, 2022 at 08:04:47 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    The bullshitter Dutch PM 🤥🤥🤥 hiding his true opinion and policy made by rightwing party VVD ...

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 07:42:41 PM EST

    Very rare, rare false and villainous. To disguise and distort your own lack of humane policies and shamelessly make them even more inhumane. What a talent @VVD

    VVD Poster "Tackle Asylum Crisis"

  • Limit the number of asylum seekers coming to the Netherlands

  • Temporarily no family reunion when stakeholder has no housing

  • More and stricter border controls

  • Tougher policy those causing disturbance expedite removal to exit location

  • No more coercion as in Tubbergen (Asperen)

  • 'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 07:50:28 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    In short interview xenophobia explainer LIVE!

    "Shall we go over and meet some asylum seekers?"
    "No, no ... I don't speak foreign ... I know they aren't active and don't want to work."

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 07:53:35 PM EST
    Netherlands PM says those who don't respect customs should leave | The Guardian - Jan. 19, 2017 |

    The Dutch prime minister, Mark Rutte, has published an open letter to the country's citizens ahead of elections in March, telling anyone who cannot respect its customs to leave.

    People who "refuse to adapt, and criticise our values" should "behave normally, or go away", Rutte said in a full-page newspaper message seen as a bid to win over voters drawn to Geert Wilders' anti-immigration, anti-Muslim Freedom (PVV) party.

    He said the Dutch were "increasingly uncomfortable" with those who abused the freedoms they enjoyed after coming to the Netherlands, who "harass gays, or whistle at women in short skirts, or brand ordinary Dutch people racists".

    Rutte, whose liberal VVD party narrowly trails PVV in the polls with elections less than two months away, said he shared the feelings of those who thought: "If you so fundamentally reject this country, then I'd prefer it if you leave."

    He said the solution was "not to tar everyone with the same brush, or insult or expel whole groups" but to "make it crystal clear what is normal, and what is not normal, in our country. We must actively defend our values."

    UK will pay huge price for prioritising migration curbs, says Dutch PM | The Guardian - Jan. 19, 2017 |

    Playing the xenophobia card in close election to beat PVV Geert Wilders ...

    Spat With Turkey Appears to Boost Dutch Prime Minister on Eve of Election | The Intercept - March 2017 |

    Polls suggest that Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte could be returned to office, boosted by a wave of approval for his feud with Turkey's president.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 07:55:54 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 07:57:40 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Does the SGP respect Dutch customs?
    by gk (gk (gk quattro due due sette @gmail.com)) on Mon Aug 29th, 2022 at 10:09:01 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Definitely and more so 🇳🇱 🇳🇱 🇳🇱  ... at last a century old traditional Calvinist culture ... think Taliban - Judeo Orthodoxy - Southern Baptists - Dutch Reformed in Holland Michigan. Are less violent today in comparison, that is true ... Dutch Golden Age of civilization.

    How the anti-Islam, orthodox-protestant SGP has moved center stage in Dutch politics

    On Israel too the SGP joins forces with Geert Wilders

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 29th, 2022 at 04:26:39 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 07:59:25 AM EST
    [ Parent ]


    VVD member Daan de Neef resigns as MP because of 'ice cold' asylum approach

    De Neef states that the VVD is 'simply' no longer his party, because he had, for example, counted more on 'humanity' in a week in which a three-month-old baby died in Ter Apel and Doctors without Borders spoke of an emergency. "That compassion failed to materialize and, in my opinion, an ice-cold approach was taken in its place," De Neef writes on Twitter. "I cannot and will not defend this." De Neef lacks balance in his political work, between doing good things and defending other subjects with difficulty.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 08:00:37 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Rutte Cabinet members defending the indefensible ...

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 08:02:41 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Key words | Steve Bannon | Emirates | democracy |

    Mercer's Cambridge Analytica Files for Bankruptcy | May 2018 |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 08:56:10 PM EST
    parl.uk | CA/SCL Psychographic targeting for Britain, 2015, proposal for LeaveEU, 25 pp
    Mercer LLC | Mercer view on UK exit from EU, 27 June, 2016
    "What should investors do?"
    Process St | How Social Media and Big Data Shaped the BREXIT Campaign Strategy, 2017
    Reuters | What are the links between Cambridge Analytica and a BREXIT campaign group?, 21 Mar 2018
    Politico.eu.com | Cambridge Analytica did work for BREXIT groups, says ex-staffer, 19 July 2019
    Forbes | Cambridge Analytica 'Did Not Influence BREXIT Referendum', Oct 2020
    well, alrighty then

    The Verge | Mark Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg won't be deposed over the [TRUMP] Cambridge Analytica scandal, 26 Aug 2022

    the company has reached a settlement agreement with [Facebook user] plaintiffs. As reported earlier by Reuters, a court filing reveals the parties have reached an agreement in principle and requested a stay of 60 days to finalize their written agreement. Without the settlement and stay, they would have been deposed before September 20th.

    You can read the document for yourself below, but so far, there are no details about the terms of the agreement.

    by Cat on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 12:59:55 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Not Just Meta ...

    Always figured he was personally involved as lobbyist for Israel to defeat the Iran lovers of the nuclear deal ... sorry Hillary.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 06:43:33 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    OT but do you see a contradiction here? I do, but I am no expert...



    by Tom2 on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 03:36:12 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Haven't had time to study your question ...

    Uitleg auteursrecht

    Auteursrecht op foto's voor je website

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 10:30:35 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Money, denials and stalling: How Trump, the Mercers and the GOP beat the FEC | CNBC - Nov. 21, 2021 |

    Institutions or causes you don't like ... just defund them 😂 UK Tories - Conservatives - Dutch PM Mark Rutte - UK PM Liz Truss profile for tomorrow ...

      The FEC has been criticized for years for not having enough funding, manpower and time to enforce election laws, and it appeared to have those same problems in this case.

    From article in The New Yorker ...

    Cambridge Analytica is essentially a shell company created by the British firm Strategic Communications Laboratories. During the 2016 campaign, according to Cadwalladr, C.A. was staffed primarily by non-U.S. citizens, in possible violation of American campaign-finance laws. This included the contractors the firm brought to Austin, Texas, to work with Trump's digital team there.

    Trump's digital team, headed by Brad Parscale and Jared Kushner. Alongside all of them were Facebook employees who were embedded with the Trump campaign to help them use Facebook's various tools most effectively--including the so-called "dark posts," used to dissuade African-Americans from showing up to vote.

    In a statement, Mark Zuckerberg could only chalk the whole saga up to "a breach of trust between Kogan, Cambridge Analytica and Facebook." The company is aided in maintaining this position by privacy policies that are as obscure as they are lax.

    F*cked up America and economic policy across the globe democracy  No 3rd term for Trump, down with MAGA hats.

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 06:45:13 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Facebook in the news nudging Joe Biden into the White House 😂

    RussiaGate was actually US IntelliGate and Democrats went on the roll to blame Putin for all evil that befell Hillary's party in such an unfortunate loss ... Key words | PropOrNot | British spook dodgy Dossier | role James Clapper | Pariah state |

  • Five-Eyes Wanted to Rid America of Trump
  • Hybrid Warfare: Statecraft Integrity Initiative
  • G W F and McCarthyism In A Digital Age - Part 2

  • 'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sat Aug 27th, 2022 at 08:58:13 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 12:35:38 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 29th, 2022 at 10:42:30 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Up to the United States to Undo Trump's Harm? Scrap the inhumane economic sanctions! ‼️ Iran 🇮🇷 🕌

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 12:37:00 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Aug 28th, 2022 at 12:37:46 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 29th, 2022 at 08:08:41 PM EST
    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 29th, 2022 at 08:12:07 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Aug 29th, 2022 at 10:57:27 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Tue Aug 30th, 2022 at 01:36:27 AM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Tue Aug 30th, 2022 at 03:31:30 AM EST

    Syrian oil to benefit US allied Kurds says the Pentagon cq Joe Biden. Stolen fossil fuel had benefited the Islamic State for many years. #borders #integrity #sovereignty

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Tue Aug 30th, 2022 at 03:34:47 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Tue Aug 30th, 2022 at 03:36:23 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Tue Aug 30th, 2022 at 03:45:52 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    In pictures: Europe's mighty rivers are drying up in the climate-driven drought

    Europe's major rivers are shrinking under the most severe climate-driven drought in decades.

    It's distressing enough to see mighty waterways like the Loire, Po and Rhine reduced to a trickle in places.  But the ongoing drought is also revealing how much we depend on them for trade, energy and transport.

    The Rhine's evaporation is especially concerning. At the chokepoint of Kaub, near Frankfurt, it is expected to fall below 40cm on Friday. This would make it impassable for some larger ships carrying supplies of oil, coal and gas.

    German power plants are particularly dependent on the deliveries as Russia restricts gas flow, and the drought could compound the country's energy crisis.

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Wed Aug 31st, 2022 at 08:49:11 AM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Wed Aug 31st, 2022 at 08:50:19 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Utter Disgust ...

    What Europe needs is a space age missile defense system ...

    Germany Weighing Missile-Defense Shield Made in U.S. or Israel - March 27, 2022

    • Israel's Arrow 3, U.S.-made THAAD system among options
    • Government to tap special defense fund to purchase technology

    Scholz revives vision for German-led air defense network in Europe | Defense News - Aug. 30, 2022 |

    The imbecile Borrell takes the lead ...

    Getting Serious About European Defense

    See my recent diary - War Is a Racket

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Wed Aug 31st, 2022 at 08:52:25 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    School integration order from SCOTUS in 1969 led to white decadence ...

    Water crisis in Jackson, MS is decades in the making | MSNBC |

    Jackson, Mississippi Has No Safe Tap Water for the Foreseeable Future | TIME |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Wed Aug 31st, 2022 at 09:39:18 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    EU Member States Life Expectancy Fell to avg. 80.4 Yrs

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Wed Aug 31st, 2022 at 11:16:30 PM EST
    The decline was about four years for Hispanic people and Black people, compared to 2.4 years for white people.
    That's strange. When I was slumming at twitter in '20, CDC stats estimated that Hispanic expectancy unexpectdly increased relative to "Black and African American" and the peanut gallery went wild. Because the story at that time was neglected "essential workers" were dropping like flies.
    by Cat on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 01:02:36 AM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Hillary a war criminal #libya #neocons #syria #refugees

    Key word | Deplorables |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 04:47:07 PM EST

    A video message from the Ukrainian president was broadcast during the opening night in the Sala Grande of the Venice Film Festival

    Key words | Azov | Biden | sandwich | Putin |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 04:48:56 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Conjecture ... UNTRUE

    L'agenzia di Forte dei Marmi: "La villa di Zelensky non è stata affittata a una coppia russa"

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 05:10:57 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Historical context ...

    Zelensky declares villa in Italy, hotel rooms in Georgia | May 20, 2019 |

    Zelensky was unaware his patron was a well known mob boss and the hidden wealth was soon to be revealed ...

    Joe Biden wants war and confrontation with personal foe Vlad Putin. Ukraine was meant historically to bear the brunt for "freedom." Throwing oil on the fire, no chance for a ceasefire, as Biden will veto any attempt until total victory. Zelensky is quite confident ...

    Pandora Papers: Network of offshore companies revealed by document leak threaten the Ukrainian president's political future, analysts say | Al Jazeera - Oct. 5, 2021 |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 1st, 2022 at 05:12:35 PM EST
    [ Parent ]

    Joe Biden in his 50 years in the political heart of America is an intrinsic part of the fascist problem ... see my last 20 years of criticism. Internal division, gun violence, inequality and endless wars across foreign lands will bear fruit, a mirror of what America has become after the fall of Communism.

    A Final Warning: Rise of Fascism

    USA and the New Era: Destruct of Society

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Sep 2nd, 2022 at 06:36:31 PM EST

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Fri Sep 2nd, 2022 at 06:38:38 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    No visas ....

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Sep 4th, 2022 at 10:14:55 PM EST
    No new appointment expected anytime soon ...

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Sun Sep 4th, 2022 at 10:15:44 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    and no NEW! US State Dept retreat from Jerusalem either.
    by Cat on Mon Sep 5th, 2022 at 05:07:20 PM EST
    [ Parent ]
    Executive summary: Clean fuel provisions

    On Aug. 16, US President Joe Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 into law, providing incentives to various sectors, including the biofuels industry. The Act does not replace the existing Renewable Fuel Standard, so the EPA will continue setting volumetric blending mandates each year.

    Though ethanol is mentioned only thrice in the lengthy law, ethanol producers will benefit from its carbon capture, utilization and storage provisions, clean fuel production credits, and incentives for ethanol-based sustainable aviation fuel. In addition, cellulosic ethanol manufacturers celebrated the revival of a previously-expired $1.01/gal second generation biofuels credit.

    Many US ethanol producers plan to use carbon capture technologies to reduce the life cycle carbon intensity of their fuel. Lowering a fuel's CI score increases its value, particularly in low-carbon markets such as California and Oregon.

    'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 8th, 2022 at 09:52:38 AM EST
    Ethanol Makers, Farmers Push for Modest Support if Subsidy Dies; Economists Say They'll Be OK | June 29, 2011 |

    As the experts point out, the 45-cent-a-gallon tax credit set to expire at the end of the year doesn't even go directly to ethanol producers, but instead has been an incentive for oil companies like BP, Valero Energy Corp., and ExxonMobil Corp. -- known in the ethanol industry as blenders -- to buy ethanol and blend it with gasoline.
And the tax credit isn't even the primary driver of ethanol demand. That, economists note, has been the federal requirement that the country produce an increasing amount of renewable fuels like ethanol.

    Courageous citizens all over the world last night (the night of Tuesday 6th and early morning of Wednesday 7th) deflated tyres on at least 600 SUVs.

    To: the European Union and its Member States

    "Stop the cultivation of sugar cane
    for biofuel on rainforest land -
    NO to free trade in Brazilian ethanol!"

    Brazil: Keep biofuel plantations out of the rainforest!

    Growing biofuels causes food shortages: myth or not?
    By Laura Golsteijn

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Thu Sep 8th, 2022 at 09:53:58 AM EST
    [ Parent ]

    US swaps Taliban prisoner in Guantanamo for American held in Afghanistan | TOI

    Bashir Noorzai, center, a senior Taliban detainee held at Guantanamo attends his release ceremony, at the Intercontinental Hotel, in Kabul, Afghanistan, Monday, Sept. 19, 2022. Bashir Noorzai, a notorious drug lord and member of the Taliban, told reporters in Kabul on Monday that he spent 17 years and six months in the U.S. detention center at Guantanamo Bay, and that he was the last Taliban prisoner there. Taliban-appointed Foreign Minister Amir Khan Muttaqi said Monday that the released American was Mark Frerichs [$5m reward], a Navy veteran and civilian contractor kidnapped in Afghanistan in 2020. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi)

    Interesting read ...

    Something Stinks About the Arrest of Noorzai | Posted by Martin Longman on Apr 25, 2005 |

    'Sapere aude'

    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Sep 19th, 2022 at 12:07:40 PM EST

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