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Woodrow Wilson's Collapse and the Peace Movement

by Oui Wed Nov 22nd, 2023 at 01:06:16 AM EST

In 2002, America Unrivaled—a book edited by my Princeton colleague, G John Ikenberry, the foremost exponent [sic] of the idea of liberal internationalism—asked why there was so little resistance from other countries to American power projection.

Posted by Cat … I expanded the comment and wrote this diary …

This inspired to write about societal revolts during my lifetime ..

From EuroTrib archives ...

In Search of a Foreign Policy Vision | 28 Jan. 2007 |

Ikenberry and Anne-Marie Slaughter like to emphasize the "liberty under law" aspect of Wilson's thinking as distinct from the lawlesslessness of neoconservatives.  I think, however, the stronger difference between them is demonstrated by Ikenberry's final sentence.  Wilson was unquestionably an American exceptionalist; but while he may in fact have seen America as "God's chosen midwife of progressive change," it was progressive change itself that represented for him the final apotheosis of civilization.  In fact, Wilson said as much in his Pueblo speech ...

The League of Nations has its origins in the Fourteen Points speech

of President Woodrow Wilson, part of a presentation given in 1918 outlining of his ideas for peace after the carnage of World War I. Wilson envisioned an organization that was charged with resolving conflicts before they exploded into bloodshed and warfare.

By December of the same year, Wilson left for Paris to transform his Fourteen Points into what would become the Treaty of Versailles. Seven months later, he returned to the United States with a treaty that included the idea for what became the League of Nations.

Republican Congressman from Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge led a battle against the treaty. Lodge believed both the treaty and the League undercut U.S. autonomy in international matters.

Woodrow Wilson: 'You will say, "Is the league an absolute guaranty against war?"', the Pueblo speech, lobbying for Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations - 1919

President Wilson attended Versailles and was desperate to have the USA ratify treaty and be part of League of Nations. It didn't happen. This was his stump speech on a tour of nation lobbying for League of Nations.

Mr. Chairman and fellow countrymen, it is with a great deal of genuine pleasure that I find myself in Pueblo, and I feel it a compliment that I should be permitted to be the first speaker in this beautiful hall. One of the advantages of this hall, as I look about, is that you are not too far away from me, because there is nothing so reassuring to men who are trying to express the public sentiment as getting into real personal contact with their fellow citizens. I have gained a renewed impression as I have crossed the continent this time of the homogeneity of this great people to whom we belong. They come from many stocks, but they are all of one kind. They come from many origins, but they are all shot through with the same principles and desire the same righteous and honest things. I have received a more inspiring impression this time of the public opinion of the United States than it was ever my privilege to receive before.

The chief pleasure of my trip has been that it has nothing to do with my personal fortunes, that it has nothing to do with my personal reputation, that it has nothing to do with anything except the great principles uttered by Americans of all sorts and of all parties which we are now trying to realize at this crisis of the affairs of the world. But there have been unpleasant impressions as well as pleasant impressions, my fellow citizens, as I have crossed the continent. I have perceived more and more that men have been busy creating an absolutely false impression of what the treaty of peace and the covenant of the league of nations contain and mean. I find, more-over, that there is an organized propaganda against the league of nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty. And I want to say-I cannot say it too often-any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready. If I can catch any man with a hyphen in this great contest, I will know that I have caught an enemy of the Republic. My fellow citizens, it is only certain bodies of foreign sympathies, certain bodies of sympathy with foreign nations that are organized against this great document which the American representatives have brought back from Paris. Therefore, in order to clear away the mists, in order to remove the impressions, in order to check the falsehoods that have clustered around this great subject, I want to tell you a few very simple things about the treaty and the covenant.

Announcement League of Nations ... Woodrow Wilson speech in Europe.

The Two Carnegie Reports: From the Balkan Expedition of 1913 to the Albanian Trip of 1921

From the Balkan Wars to the end of World War One, international relations changed thoroughly. This shift in depth was the final phase of an evolution that started between the Crimean War and the Berlin Congress of 1878. At the same time, a broader movement was emerging: the Peace Movement, whose premise was that war was not going to disappear but the rules of war should be codified through international law. The Peace movement also addressed new concepts such as the issues pertaining to civilians in wartime. As a corollary, prevention of conflict, collective intervention might contribute to defuse crises and dissipate tensions. These concepts slowly made their way to the highest foreign offices of the European Great Powers and in the USA through conferences, several of them organized at the Russian initiative1. Then, the well-known two Hague conferences of 1899 and 1907 constituted the first try to provide institutions to the Peace Movement as the Great Powers gathered among more than 20 other states to discuss world issues.

This evolution in foreign affairs was particularly noticeable in the Balkans during the decline of the Ottoman Empire. Along the 19th century, the region can be viewed as a laboratory of political experiences ranging from classic military intervention, invasions (the Ottoman point of view), or wars of liberation for the Balkan states, to a range of intermediary political tryout such as the occupation of Bosnia-Herzegovina or the complex autonomous status of Bulgaria. Of these, international intervention is to be highlight, as it would have a major impact on foreign international policy during the 20th. In the Ottoman Empire, international intervention derived from the Great Powers' involvement which took various forms, such as military, Austrian or Russian armies, or protection of the Christian orthodox minorities and led around 1878 to the establishment of zones of influences, the Great Powers division of the Balkans among themselves, following their rising recent economic interests3. Around 1900, international intervention ceased to be based on marching armies and instead collective diplomacy emerged as a response to the crises linked to the rise of nationalism and the decline of the central power in Istanbul. The first organized international interventions took place in Crete 1899 and in Macedonia in 1904.

What could be the link between the Peace Movement, the evolution in foreign affairs and the well-known philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)? Carnegie, like others successful entrepreneurs of the time, supported the Peace Movement as peace implied economic prosperity and progress for the humankind; and war meant regression. Founded in 1910, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) had three objectives: to promote international understanding, to study the effects of war on civilians, and to support international law. Carnegie surrounded himself with leaders belonging to the new professional class, lawyers, academics and diplomats. They were the products of urbanization and industrialization that accelerated since the end of the US Civil War. Mostly Protestant, Republican and conservative, they believed that education could shape public opinion. The CEIP was run by a board of trustees that usually met twice a year to discuss budget and programs among the three divisions of international law, inter-course and education and economics and history6. Carnegie appointed individuals he knew through business, friends he trusted on a personal level.

Towards Permanent Peace, A Record of the Women's International Congress held at The Hague, April 28 - May 1st, 1915.

Aletta Jacobs took responsibility for organizing the event which was to take place in The Netherlands because of its neutral position during World War I. Invitations to participate in the Congress were sent to women's organizations as well as individual women all over the world. Approximately, 1500 women, from neutral and warring countries, attended the Congress.

Many more intended to come but were unable to because they were prevented from leaving their country by their own national governments or they were denied passports and some could simply not make the journey to The Hague because national borders were closed due to the war. The North Sea was closed off as well which prevented the women's delegation from Great-Britain to cross over. Fortunately, three British ladies did manage to attend the Congress.

The women who did make it to The Hague came from 12 different nations namely: Sweden, Norway, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Belgium, Austria, Canada, the United States of America, Denmark, Great Britain and the Netherlands.

The Hague Peace Conferences and the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

The Hague Peace Conference of 1899, convened on the initiative of the Russian Czar Nicholas II, marked the beginning of a third phase in the modern history of international arbitration. The chief object of the Conference, in which -- a remarkable innovation for the time -- the smaller States of Europe, some Asian States and Mexico also participated, was to discuss peace and disarmament. It culminated in the adoption of a Convention on the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, which dealt not only with arbitration but also with other methods of pacific settlement, such as good offices and mediation.

History Peace Palace in The Hague - 1913 to present

In addition to the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the Peace Palace now houses the United Nations International Court of Justice, the Hague Academy of International Law and the Peace Palace Library. The Carnegie Foundation is the owner and manager of the Peace Palace.

The Palace still embodies the decades-old dream of world peace and the Carnegie Foundation, on a daily basis, works towards a better world by convening, educating and inspiring people worldwide.

Biden's Blitzkrieg Across Europe Shames Peace

The true earlier efforts for peace came from women organizations sick and tired of their husbands going off to war, even before the outbreak of World War I. Women's suffragettes was a beneficial result just as during World War II in America women entered the workplace and never could be banished to return to the kitchen and a strict role of housewife. The revolutions wars made happen ...

Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany: A Dialogue in Documents, 1885-1933

Women's Suffrage Archive Film Clip May 1915

Meet Miss Jane Addams from Chicago in Berlin with Von Hindenburg's army at the front.

Addams, along with Aletta Jacobs and Alice Hamilton, walk in Berlin with the Brandenburg Gate in the background. Addams briefly shakes hands with filmmaker Wilbur H. Durborough and continues towards the camera. The silent film is a 12-second excerpt from Durborough's documentary On the Firing Line with the Germans, released in 1916.

Additional reading the Bush and Obama years of violation of international law ...

CHEVRON's Cabinda (Angola) & Condoleezza Rice - Arrest A. Bembe at Peace Talks in The Hague | Sep 22, 2005 |

U.S. State Dep't Rice's request for extradition of Cabinda peace negotiator Antonio Bembe, led to his arrest on the steps of the Peace Palace in The Hague. The resistance movement FLEC was involved in the kidnapping of Chevron oil employee Brent Swan in 1990. Dutch FM Bot, Portugal and UNPO are trying to broker a peace deal to settle the hostilities between Cabinda and Angola.

From my diary @BooMan ...

Barack Obama and an Act of War | Aug 26, 2013 |


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